Please fill in your details to download the Table of Contents of this report for free. We also do customization of these reports so you can write to us at mi fibre2fashion. Fibre is the starting point of the textile chain. First of all, fibre is obtained from the source, which is then spun into yarn. Yarn is then woven or knitted into fabric. Fibres can be classified into 2 main categories: natural and synthetic.
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Natural fibers may be of animal, vegetable, or mineral origin. Although the annual production of vegetable fibers outweighs that of animal or mineral fibers, all have long been useful to humans. Animal hair fibers consist of a protein known as keratin. It has a composition similar to human hair. Keratin proteins are actually crystalline copolymers of nylon, where the repeating units are amino acids. The fibrous proteins form crystals.
They also crosslink through disulfide bonds present in the cystine amino acid. Silks are partially crystalline protein fibers. Animal tendons consist of collagen, another fibrous protein with a complex hierarchical structure. Wool forms the protective covering of sheep, screening them from heat and cold, and allowing them. The following are important characteristics of wool fibers: 1 They are in 2.
The conversion of wool fiber into fabric begins with the shearing of the sheep. In most of the United States, sheep shearing takes place in the spring. Professional shearers travel from place to place, where they are paid by the number of fleeces they shear. A good sheep shearer can shear sheep per day. Wool fleeces are sorted by hand according to their quality. The shoulder wool usually produces the best fiber, followed in order of quality by the side, neck, and back wool.
After sorting, the wool is scoured to clean it and to prepare it for dyeing. After the wool has been dyed, it is carded to open the fibers. The fibers are then drawn into yarn, and any kinks present are removed by steam pressure. The yarn is next woven, examined, and burled to remove all knots and loose threads.
In the finishing process, the cloth is shrunk, washed and rinsed to remove all impurities and dirt picked up in the earlier operations. Then the cloth is dried and straightened to remove all wrinkles.
Finally, the cloth is sheared to give it uniformity, and then moistened and passed through heated rollers for pressing. Worsteds are produced in a similar process, but the wool fibers are twisted during processing to produce a smoother, harder surface.
As a result, worsteds have harder surface finishes, greater durability, and sharper colorings than woolens. Silk is a continuous protein filament spun by the silkworm to form its cocoon.
The principle species used in commercial production is the mulberry silkworm, which is the larva of the silk moth, Bombyx mori.
It belongs to the order Lepidoptera. Silk and sericulture the culturing of silk probably began in China more than 4, years ago.
The Chinese used silk for clothing, wall hangings, paintings, religious ornamentation, interior decoration , and to maintain religious records. Knowledge of the silkworm passed from China to Japan through Korea. The production. Silk was also passed to Persia and Central Asia where it was encountered by the Greeks.
Aristotle was the first Western writer to describe the silkworm. In AD , the Emperor Justinian acquired silkworm eggs and mulberry seeds, beginning the varieties of silkworms that supplied the Western world with silk for 1, years.
Silk fibers are smooth, translucent, rod-like filaments with occasional swellings along their length. The raw silk fiber actually consists of two filaments called fibroin bound by a soluble silk gum called sericin. Fibroin and sericin are made up of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen.
Silk has several important qualities: 1 It is lower in density than wool, cotton, or rayon. Sericulture requires scrupulous care and painstaking attention to detail. Breeder moths are first selected with great care. Eggs from the moths are repeatedly tested to ensure the quality of the larvae.
The selected eggs are placed in cold storage until the early spring when they are incubated. After about a week, the eggs hatch into tiny silkworms. The worms are kept in clean conditions on trays of mulberry leaves. Young silkworms have voracious appetites, eating every couple of hours day and night for five weeks. To produce a pound of silk, one silkworm would have to eat lb In these first five weeks of life, the worms grow to 70 times their original size. The silkworm first attaches itself to a twig.
Then it begins spinning filaments of silk in an endless series of figure eights. This builds up walls within walls which are held together by gummy sericin that dries and hardens following exposure to air. Without human intervention, the worm inside the cocoon would develop into a chrysalis and later into a moth.
The moth would then burst the cocoon and break the one long strand of silk into many short ones. But sericulture destroys the worm inside the cocoon by stifling it with heat. The next step in sericulture is to unwind the cocoon. This process is called reeling. To produce uniform strands of raw silk for commercial use, filaments of cocoons are combined into a single thread. To do this, the cocoons are first soaked in hot water. After the ends of the filaments have been located, the filaments are passed through porcelain guides where they are twisted into fibers of uniform length and regularity.
Reeling may be done automatically or by hand. Raw silk is wound into skeins. Thirty skeins constitute one book, which weighs around 4. Thirty books make a bale, which weighs The bale is the basic unit of commercial transactions. About lb Raw silk taken directly from the filature is too fine to be woven. It must first be made into a thicker and more substantial yarn in a process known as throwing.
Throwing consists of: sorting the skeins according to quality; soaking selected skeins to remove the sericin; drying any skeins that have been soaked; rewinding the skeins onto bobbins; twisting the threads from two or more bobbins to form single strands; again twisting to produce a fine thread; and finally conditioning the highly twisted thread.
In addition to wool and silk, a number of specialty fibers are also obtained from animals. In most cases, animal fibers are similar to each other. They grow in two principal coats: the shiny and stiff outer coat or hair; and the undergrowth or fur. Fabrics containing specialty fibers are expensive because of the difficulties in obtaining the fibers, and the amount of processing required to prepare the fibers for use. Unlimited combinations of specialty fibers with wool are possible.
Specialty fibers may be used to add softness or luster to fabrics. They also enhance the insulating properties of blended fabrics. Vegetable fibers were used by ancient man for fishing and trapping. Evidence exists that man made ropes and cords as early as 20, BC. The Egyptians probably produced ropes and cords from reeds, grasses, and flax around BC.
They later produced matting from vegetable fibers, rushes, reeds, and papyrus grasses bound with flax string. Vegetable fibers consist of cellulose, i.
Vegetable fibers are classified according to the part of the plant that they come from. The four groupings are: seed-hair fibers, leaf fibers, bast fibers, and miscellaneous fibers. The first category of vegetable fiber is of seed-hair fibers, which includes: cotton, kapok, flosses obtained from seeds, seedpods, and the inner walls of fruit.
Perhaps no other natural product has influenced the destiny of humankind as has cotton. It has clothed nations, enslaved men and women, monopolized labor, and given direction to entire industries. The first historical mention of cotton was in the writings of Herodotus.
Writing in BC, he described trees with fleece growing in them in India. Archeological discoveries have placed the use of cotton in India to BC. Cotton spread by trade to the Middle East , particularly Egypt, and later, in the seventh and eighth centuries, it was brought to Spain by the Moors. New World explorers found cotton fabrics being manufactured in Peru, Mexico, and what is now the southwestern United States. Carbon 14 tests have dated the use of cotton in Peru as far back as BC.
The need to harvest cotton when the weather is perfectly dry meant at first that the European colonists had to spend long days working in the hot sun. They eventually circumvented their dislike for this labor by importing slaves to do the work for them. In a young inventor named Eli Whitney developed the cotton gin , which allowed cotton seeds to be rapidly separated from the fiber mechanically.
This single invention raised cotton exports from bales a year in to 30, bales in and , bales in By there were more than a million slaves in the Southern states; by the number had risen to more than 4 million. Since the end of World War II , demand for cotton has been largely supplanted by one for synthetic fibers, particularly polyester and nylon.
Incursions into the cotton market are due in part to the dwindling availability of land to raise cotton.
Environmental and Ethical Issues In The Production Of Natural Fabrics and Fibres
Hemp is a sustainable and environmental friendly crop that can provide valuable raw materials to a large number of industrial applications. Traditionally harvested at full flowering for textile destinations, nowadays hemp is mainly harvested at seed maturity for dual-purpose applications and has a great potential as multipurpose crop. However, the European hemp fiber market is stagnating if compared to the growing market of hemp seeds and phytocannabinoids. To support a sustainable growth of the hemp fiber market, agronomic techniques as well as genotypes and post-harvest processing should be optimized to preserve fiber quality during grain ripening, enabling industrial processing and maintaining, or even increasing, actual fiber applications and improving high-added value applications.
Register Now. Fiber is a fine hair-like structure and is considered the raw materials of textiles. The fiber is extracted from various sources for commercial use. In addition to obtaining from animals, plants, and minerals, many of the fibers are artificially generated as well.
Textile manufacturing is a major industry. It is based on the conversion of fibre into yarn , yarn into fabric. These are then dyed or printed, fabricated into clothes. Different types of fibres are used to produce yarn. Cotton remains the most important natural fibre, so is treated in depth. There are many variable processes available at the spinning and fabric-forming stages coupled with the complexities of the finishing and colouration processes to the production of a wide range of products. Cotton is the world's most important natural fibre.
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Many of us tend to believe that natural fibres, being products of nature, are naturally better than their synthetic counterparts. However, this isn't always the case. The production of most natural fibres such as cotton, wool and silk have their fair share of environmental and ethical issues too - it's just that 'natural' is often associated with 'good'. Although the impact on the environment, workers and animals or plants involved in the production varies for each fibre, the impacts nevertheless exist.
Natural fibers may be of animal, vegetable, or mineral origin. Although the annual production of vegetable fibers outweighs that of animal or mineral fibers, all have long been useful to humans. Animal hair fibers consist of a protein known as keratin. It has a composition similar to human hair. Keratin proteins are actually crystalline copolymers of nylon, where the repeating units are amino acids. The fibrous proteins form crystals. They also crosslink through disulfide bonds present in the cystine amino acid. Silks are partially crystalline protein fibers.
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ASTM's textile standards provide the specifications and test methods for the physical, mechanical, and chemical properties of textiles, fabrics, and cloths, as well as the natural and artificial fibers that constitute them. The textiles covered by these standards are commonly formed by weaving, knitting, or spinning together fibers such as glass fiber strands, wool and other animal fibers, cotton and other plant-derived fibers, yarn, sewing threads, and mohair, to name a few. These textile standards help fabric and cloth designers and manufacturers in testing textiles to ensure acceptable characteristics towards proper end-use. Additive Manufacturing Standards. Cement Standards and Concrete Standards. Fire Standards and Flammability Standards. Geotechnical Engineering Standards. Consumer Product Evaluation Standards.
Cotton fibre can be woven or knitted into fabrics including velvet, corduroy, chambray, velour, jersey and flannel. Cotton can be used to create dozens of different fabric types for a range of end-uses, including blends with other natural fibres like wool, and synthetic fibres like polyester. In addition to textile products like underwear, socks and t-shirts, cotton is also used in fishnets, coffee filters, tents, book binding and archival paper. Linters are the very short fibres that remain on the cottonseed after ginning, and are used to produce goods such as bandages, swabs, bank notes, cotton buds and x-rays. The cotton lint from one kg bale can produce pairs of denim jeans, single bed sheets, shirts, 1, t-shirts, 3, nappies, 4, pairs of socks, , cotton balls, or 2, pairs of boxer shorts. Cotton is a food and a fibre crop.
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Plant and animal fibers have provided humans with, among other things, shelter, vessels in which to hold water and cook food, and thread for making fabrics. Even tho most of the world has abandoned mud and waddle home construction and baskets smeared with clay as water vessels or cooking utensils, plant fibers as a source of weaving still remains current in use. In prehistoric times humans probably obtained flexible plant fibers simply by pulling off strips of bark or cutting stems and leaves onto thin, weavable ribbons.
Natural fibers may be of animal , vegetable, or mineral origin. Although the annual production of vegetable fibers outweighs that of animal or mineral fibers, all have long been useful to humans. Animal hair fibers consist of a protein known as keratin. It has a composition similar to human hair.
This site is for general and professional education purposes. Information on the basics of Economic Botany. Economic Classification Fibers.