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Frequently asked questionsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Bakery products
Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water , usually by baking. Throughout recorded history it has been a prominent food in large parts of the world and is one of the oldest man-made foods, having been of significant importance since the dawn of agriculture.
Bread may be leavened by processes such as reliance on naturally occurring sourdough microbes, chemicals, industrially produced yeast, or high-pressure aeration. Commercial bread commonly contains additives to improve flavor, texture, color, shelf life, nutrition, and ease of manufacturing.
The Old English word for bread was hlaf hlaifs in Gothic : modern English loaf , which appears to be the oldest Teutonic name. Bread is one of the oldest prepared foods. Evidence from 30, years ago in Europe revealed starch residue on rocks used for pounding plants.
The world's oldest evidence of bread-making has been found in a 14,year-old Natufian site in Jordan's northeastern desert. Yeast spores are ubiquitous, including on the surface of cereal grains , so any dough left to rest leavens naturally. There were multiple sources of leavening available for early bread. Airborne yeasts could be harnessed by leaving uncooked dough exposed to air for some time before cooking.
Pliny the Elder reported that the Gauls and Iberians used the foam skimmed from beer called barm to produce "a lighter kind of bread than other peoples" such as barm cake. Parts of the ancient world that drank wine instead of beer used a paste composed of grape juice and flour that was allowed to begin fermenting, or wheat bran steeped in wine , as a source for yeast. The most common source of leavening was to retain a piece of dough from the previous day to use as a form of sourdough starter , as Pliny also reported.
The Chorleywood bread process was developed in ; it uses the intense mechanical working of dough to dramatically reduce the fermentation period and the time taken to produce a loaf. The process, whose high-energy mixing allows for the use of grain with a lower protein content, is now widely used around the world in large factories.
As a result, bread can be produced very quickly and at low costs to the manufacturer and the consumer. However, there has been some criticism of the effect on nutritional value. Bread is usually made from a wheat - flour dough that is cultured with yeast, allowed to rise, and finally baked in an oven. The addition of yeast to the bread explains the air pockets commonly found in bread. Bread is also made from the flour of other wheat species including spelt , emmer , einkorn and kamut.
Gluten-free breads are made using ground flours from a variety of ingredients such as almonds, rice, sorghum, corn, or legumes such as beans, and tubers such as cassava, but since these flours lack gluten they may not hold their shape as they rise and their crumb may be dense with little aeration.
Additives such as xanthan gum, guar gum, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose HPMC , corn starch, or eggs are used to compensate for the lack of gluten. In wheat , phenolic compounds are mainly found in hulls in the form of insoluble bound ferulic acid , where it is relevant to wheat resistance to fungal diseases.
Rye bread contains phenolic acids and ferulic acid dehydrodimers. Three natural phenolic glucosides, secoisolariciresinol diglucoside , p-coumaric acid glucoside and ferulic acid glucoside , can be found in commercial breads containing flaxseed. Glutenin and gliadin are functional proteins found in wheat bread that contribute to the structure of bread.
Glutenin forms interconnected gluten networks within bread through interchain disulfide bonds. The glutenin protein contributes to its elastic nature, as it is able to regain its initial shape after deformation. The gliadin protein contributes to its plastic nature, because it demonstrates non-reversible structural change after a certain amount of applied force.
Because air pockets within this gluten network result from carbon dioxide production during leavening, bread can be defined as a foam, or a gas-in-solid solution. Acrylamide is neurotoxic , has adverse effects on male reproduction and developmental toxicity and is carcinogenic.
A study has found that more than 99 percent of the acrylamide in bread is found in the crust. Bread can be served at many temperatures ; once baked, it can subsequently be toasted. It is most commonly eaten with the hands, either by itself or as a carrier for other foods.
Bread can be dipped into liquids such as gravy , olive oil , or soup ;  it can be topped with various sweet and savory spreads, or used to make sandwiches containing meats , cheeses, vegetables, and condiments. Bread is used as an ingredient in other culinary preparations, such as the use of breadcrumbs to provide crunchy crusts or thicken sauces, sweet or savoury bread puddings , or as a binding agent in sausages and other ground meat products.
Nutritionally, bread is categorized as a source of grains in the food pyramid and is a good source of carbohydrates and nutrients such as magnesium, iron, selenium, B vitamins, and dietary fiber. Bread crust is formed from surface dough during the cooking process. It is hardened and browned through the Maillard reaction using the sugars and amino acids and the intense heat at the bread surface.
The crust of most breads is harder, and more complexly and intensely flavored, than the rest. Old wives' tales suggest that eating the bread crust makes a person's hair curlier. Some studies have shown that this is true as the crust has more dietary fiber and antioxidants such as pronyl-lysine ,   which is being researched for its potential colorectal cancer inhibitory properties.
Doughs are usually baked , but in some cuisines breads are steamed e. It may be leavened or unleavened e. Salt , fat and leavening agents such as yeast and baking soda are common ingredients, though bread may contain other ingredients, such as milk , egg , sugar , spice , fruit such as raisins , vegetables such as onion , nuts such as walnut or seeds such as poppy. Methods of processing dough into bread include the straight dough process , the sourdough process , the Chorleywood bread process and the sponge and dough process.
Professional bread recipes are stated using the baker's percentage notation. Measurement by weight is more accurate and consistent than measurement by volume, particularly for dry ingredients. The proportion of water to flour is the most important measurement in a bread recipe, as it affects texture and crumb the most. In yeast breads, the higher water percentages result in more CO 2 bubbles and a coarser bread crumb. Calcium propionate is commonly added by commercial bakeries to retard the growth of molds.
Flour is grain ground to a powdery consistency. Flour provides the primary structure, starch and protein to the final baked bread. The protein content of the flour is the best indicator of the quality of the bread dough and the finished bread. An extended mixing time leads to oxidization of the dough, which gives the finished product a whiter crumb, instead of the cream color preferred by most artisan bakers. Wheat flour, in addition to its starch, contains three water-soluble protein groups albumin , globulin , and proteoses and two water-insoluble protein groups glutenin and gliadin.
When flour is mixed with water, the water-soluble proteins dissolve, leaving the glutenin and gliadin to form the structure of the resulting bread. When relatively dry dough is worked by kneading , or wet dough is allowed to rise for a long time see no-knead bread , the glutenin forms strands of long, thin, chainlike molecules, while the shorter gliadin forms bridges between the strands of glutenin.
The resulting networks of strands produced by these two proteins are known as gluten. Gluten development improves if the dough is allowed to autolyse. Water, or some other liquid, is used to form the flour into a paste or dough. The weight of liquid required varies between recipes, but a ratio of 3 parts liquid to 5 parts flour is common for yeast breads. Instead of water, recipes may use liquids such as milk or other dairy products including buttermilk or yoghurt , fruit juice, or eggs.
These contribute additional sweeteners, fats, or leavening components, as well as water. Fats, such as butter, vegetable oils, lard, or that contained in eggs, affect the development of gluten in breads by coating and lubricating the individual strands of protein. They also help to hold the structure together. If too much fat is included in a bread dough, the lubrication effect causes the protein structures to divide.
Bread improvers and dough conditioners are often used in producing commercial breads to reduce the time needed for rising and to improve texture and volume. The substances used may be oxidising agents to strengthen the dough or reducing agents to develop gluten and reduce mixing time, emulsifiers to strengthen the dough or to provide other properties such as making slicing easier, or enzymes to increase gas production.
Salt sodium chloride is very often added to enhance flavor and restrict yeast activity. It also affects the crumb and the overall texture by stabilizing and strengthening  the gluten. Some artisan bakers forego early addition of salt to the dough, whether wholemeal or refined, and wait until after a minute rest to allow the dough to autolyse. Mixtures of salts are sometimes employed, such as employing potassium chloride to reduce the sodium level, and monosodium glutamate to give flavor umami.
Leavening is the process of adding gas to a dough before or during baking to produce a lighter, more easily chewed bread. Most bread eaten in the West is leavened. A simple technique for leavening bread is the use of gas-producing chemicals.
There are two common methods. The first is to use baking powder or a self-raising flour that includes baking powder. The second is to include an acidic ingredient such as buttermilk and add baking soda ; the reaction of the acid with the soda produces gas.
This method is commonly used to make muffins , pancakes , American-style biscuits , and quick breads such as banana bread. Many breads are leavened by yeast. The yeast most commonly used for leavening bread is Saccharomyces cerevisiae , the same species used for brewing alcoholic beverages. This yeast ferments some of the carbohydrates in the flour, including any sugar , producing carbon dioxide.
Commercial bakers often leaven their dough with commercially produced baker's yeast. Baker's yeast has the advantage of producing uniform, quick, and reliable results, because it is obtained from a pure culture. If kept in the right conditions, it provides leavening for many years. The baker's yeast and sourdough methods follow the same pattern. Water is mixed with flour, salt and the leavening agent. Other additions spices, herbs, fats, seeds, fruit, etc.
The mixed dough is then allowed to rise one or more times a longer rising time results in more flavor, so bakers often "punch down" the dough and let it rise again , loaves are formed, and after an optional final rising time the bread is baked in an oven. Many breads are made from a " straight dough ", which means that all of the ingredients are combined in one step, and the dough is baked after the rising time;  others are made from a " pre-ferment " in which the leavening agent is combined with some of the flour and water a day or so ahead of baking and allowed to ferment overnight.
On the day of baking, the rest of the ingredients are added, and the process continues as with straight dough. This produces a more flavorful bread with better texture. Many bakers see the starter method as a compromise between the reliable results of baker's yeast and the flavor and complexity of a longer fermentation. It also allows the baker to use only a minimal amount of baker's yeast, which was scarce and expensive when it first became available. Sourdough is a type of bread produced by a long fermentation of dough using naturally occurring yeasts and lactobacilli.
It usually has a mildly sour taste because of the lactic acid produced during anaerobic fermentation by the lactobacilli. Sourdough breads are made with a sourdough starter.
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Grants manufacture bread pans and baking trays. From the finest baking sugars and luster dust from Ultimate Baker, to fondant, natural food color, pizza trays, pastry rings, and thousands of other baking accessories and healthy ingredients, Cooks Dream is your one stop retail baking supplies store with all products shipped by us directly across the US and beyond. Rademaker BV P. Get latest price of Bakery Equipments. Check our offer of services and make your deal easy and smooth. Explore our wide range of bakery equipment and machinery that is sure to meets your specific needs in baking the highest quality bread, pies, biscuits, cookies, pizza and pastries. We buy and sell second-hand bakery machines with the aim to provide bakery technology in top quality at reasonable prices.
Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water , usually by baking. Throughout recorded history it has been a prominent food in large parts of the world and is one of the oldest man-made foods, having been of significant importance since the dawn of agriculture. Bread may be leavened by processes such as reliance on naturally occurring sourdough microbes, chemicals, industrially produced yeast, or high-pressure aeration. Commercial bread commonly contains additives to improve flavor, texture, color, shelf life, nutrition, and ease of manufacturing. The Old English word for bread was hlaf hlaifs in Gothic : modern English loaf , which appears to be the oldest Teutonic name. Bread is one of the oldest prepared foods. Evidence from 30, years ago in Europe revealed starch residue on rocks used for pounding plants.
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Bread should be stored in a clean, dry container that allows the free flow of air. The air will stop evaporating moisture from inside the bread making the surface damp and encouraging microbial growth. Bread should be eaten within a few days. The flour, water, salt and yeast are mixed to make the dough.
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Back in the early s, the national loaf was fundamentally redesigned. The flour and yeast were changed and a combination of intense energy and additives completely displaced time in the maturing of dough. Almost all our bread has been made this way for nearly half a century. It is white and light and stays soft for days. It is made largely with home-grown wheat and it is cheap. For increasing numbers of people, however, it is also inedible. Now, as technology finds ever more ingenious ways to adulterate our bread, so science is revealing the havoc this may be causing to public health.
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In this study, we analyzed the conservation of a semi-liquid bio-preserver SL developed with Lactobacillus plantarum CRL , a lactic acid bacterium LAB having antifungal activity. These differences observed between the storage temperatures tested were reflected in the acidification activity of SL during dough fermentation. However, SL maintained its antifungal efficacy up to a day storage at both temperatures. Fungal spoilage is the main cause of substantial economic losses in the baking industry
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