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The cavity-microfiber is endowed with unique surface roughness, mechanical strength, and long-term durability due to the design of cavity as well as polymer composition, thus enabling an outstanding performance of water collection. Moreover, the spider-web-like networks assembled controllably by cavity-microfibers demonstrate excellent large-scale and high-efficient water collection. Our light-weighted yet tough, low-cost microfibers with high efficiency in directional water transportation offers promising opportunities for large-scale water collection in water-deficient areas.
The spider silk 1 , 2 is well-known for its intriguing ability to collect water from humid air, and has thus inspired the design for materials of unique wettability. The water-wetted spider silk composes of periodic spindle-knots and joints with different surface roughness 3. The unique structure of the natural microfiber enables a surface energy gradient, as well as a difference in Laplace pressure between the knots and joints 4.
Both result in the directional transport of water droplets towards the knots continuously. Guided by this insight, microfibers with polymer spindle knots have been fabricated to mimic the spider silks for water collection 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , The functionalities of these microfibers depend crucially on their geometrical properties, such as the knot size and surface nanostructures.
The microfibers with spindle-knots can be fabricated by methods including electrospinning 12 , 13 , dip-coating 14 , 15 , and microfluidic approaches In the electrospinning approach, a viscous inner liquid and a less-viscous shell liquid are electrified coaxially, forming a hydrophobic fiber with hydrophilic knots 12 , With the dip-coating, smooth microfibers are dipped into polymer solutions, and then droplets form along the fiber due to Rayleigh-plateau instability 14 , Subsequently, these droplets are solidified to generate the knots.
These two approaches have, however, limited control over the microstructure of the fabricated fiber, such as the separation between the knots and the size of the knots.
Microfluidics enables good controllability of microscale jets and droplets 17 , and is thus capable of producing microfibers with precisely-tuned spindle-knot structures. With the microfluidic approach, a liquid jet encapsulating discrete core oil droplets is typically templated for a gel fiber After dehydration, the oil cores wrapped in a thin layer of gel fiber serve as knots.
Thus, the spindle-knot fiber by microfluidics is usually uniform in the material composition, almost with no difference in surface roughness. Moreover, the oil drops evaporate over time and thus the knots deform gradually, compromising the long-term functionality.
Furthermore, although the functions of a single fiber have been studied, the integrated collective performance of assembled spindle-fibers as topological networks has not been sufficiently demonstrated. Therefore, it is urgently demanding to fabricate durable, functional spider-silk-mimicking microfibers, and assemble these fibers into topological networks for large-scale water collection.
Here we fabricate microfibers with spindle cavity-knots that mimic the structure and surface roughness of the spider silk from composite hydrogels named cavity-microfiber by simple microfluidics, for assembled networks and large-scale water collection. The cavity-microfibers are templated from jet phase with gas bubbles, via cross-linking and drying.
The knot size and distance between the knots are controlled by the flow rates of the jet phase and the pressure of the gas phase. The surface roughness is enabled by incorporating phase-separated polymers in the jet phase.
Owing to the cavity design, the surfaces of the knot part are much rougher than the rest of the cavity-microfiber, enhancing the driving force of the directional water transport. Due to the robustness of the cavity-microfiber, the cavity knots maintain their shape and functions for cycles of water-collecting.
Furthermore, we demonstrate the water-collecting efficiency of different topological fiber-networks made from the cavity-microfibers in bio-mimicking spider-web. We show that the structure of cavity-microfiber and its network topology dictate the water-collecting performance.
Our facial and economic approach offers light-weighted, yet tough spindle cavity-knot microfibers with high efficiency of water collection. These cavity-microfibers are promising building blocks for spider-web-like networks for water treatment, drug delivery, tissue engineering and cell culture. We employed capillary-based microfluidic system Fig. Alginate-based composite solution ABC solution was used as the continous jet phase; nitrogen or air was used as dispersed phase to generate bubbles 19 , 20 , 21 under the shear of the continuous flow.
Then the jet of ABC solution encapsulating uniform bubbles was solidified into hydrated microfiber with cavity knots named hydrated cavity-microfiber, Fig. The resultant dehydrated microfiber with spindle cavity-knots is light-weighted and has a density, 0. The diameter of hydrated cavity-microfiber was controlled by the flow rate of continuous phase, Q jet. We varied Q jet from 0. Under the constant Q jet , as the inlet pressure of the gas phase increased, the volume of the generated gas bubbles increased and the distance between the bubbles decreased Supplementary Fig.
Thus, the fiber diameter, the knot size and the distance between knots can be tuned conveniently. The production rate of cavity-microfibers is highly dependent on the flow rate of continuous phase Q jet. Varying Q jet from 0. The linear relationship between fiber length and Q jet holds over the fabrication time Supplementary Fig.
The simple microfluidic approach enables the generation of such microfibers in large quantities, which are collected using a plastic rod Fig. Schematic diagram showing the experimental set-up for the fabrication of cavity-microfibers. The resultant spindle cavity-knot microfibers from composite polymers Fig.
Intriguingly, the surface of the knot on the cavity-microfiber exihibits alligator cracking Fig. This feature resembles the surface morphology of a spider-silk fiber, and differs from fibers previously reported 16 , where the joint usually has rougher surface than the knot.
This desirable surface morpology of the cavity-microfiber is asscoiated with the hollow knot and solid joint, as demonstrated in Fig. During dehydration, the polymer concentation increases sharply due to water losing, and results in the phase seperation between PVA and PEG 23 , The cavity-knot is dehydrated much faster than the solid joint, due to the significant large surface area.
Therefore, the cavity-knot is freezed at the early time of phase seperation, the binary structures of which is featured by small domains, resulting in alligator cracking with high crack density; while the solid joint at the late stage of phase seperation is featured by large and continuous domains, leading to transverse cracking with low crack density.
The enhanced roughness on the knot surface creates an elevated surface energy gradiant between the knot and joint, thus favoring the water transport towards the knot. The morphology of cavity-microfibers. The SEM images showing a the dehydrated cavity-microfiber; b the nanostructures of knot part of cavity-microfiber; c the nanostructures of joint part of cavity-microfiber; AFM image showing roughness and nanostructures of d the knot part and e joint part of the cavity-microfiber; SEM images showing f , g the hollow cavity of the knot; h the solid cross section of the joint part for cavity-microfiber.
The mechanical strength such as stretching and bending abilities of cavity-microfiber from composite polymers are significantly improved.
The maximum tensile stress of the cavity-microfiber, 2. In addition, the resultant cavity-microfiber can be easily spiraled Supplementary Fig. To characterize the water-collecting ability of the fabricated cavity-microfiber, we first investigate a typical single cavity-microfiber, interacting with water in an artifical fog flow of 0. At first, tiny water droplets were absorbed by the hydrogel cavity-microfiber, resulting in the slight swell of cavity-microfiber Supplementary Fig.
Then tiny water droplets condensed on the cavity-microfiber at random locations. The water droplets grew bigger due to the continuous condensation and moved toward the spindle knot directionally Supplementary Fig. A knot with a large difference of Laplace pressure or a large surface energy can be the domain knot among others. The water droplets collected on the knots moved towards the domain knot, thus an even larger droplet was collected Fig. We monitored the water collected on a domain knot over time Supplementary Fig.
The water volume increased linearly with time, except two sharp increases, indicating the transporting and merging of water droplets on the domain knots Fig. The maximum volume of water droplet collected by the domain knot was For a single spindle-cavity-knot microfiber of length 7.
Water collection of single dehydrated cavity-microfiber. All error bars in c and d indicate the standard deviations over five independent measurements. The maximum water capacity that collected by single cavity-microfiber is determined by a balance between the water gravity and the adhesion to the fiber. As the water droplets became sufficiently large on the knots, they detached and fell off. By balancing the adhesive and gravitational effects, we have the maximum volume that can be collected by a single knot as:.
In general, the water capacity of the cavity-microfiber can be enhanced by increasing the TCL. If the water droplet is collected on two or more identical neighboring knots, the TCL immediately increases. Therefore, we can evaluate the max volume of water droplet collected by single cavity-microfiber Supplementary Fig. Owing to its robustness, the cavity-microfiber can maintain the shape of cavity knots and collect water for cycles Fig.
We examine the durability of cavity-microfiber for a month, during which the cavity shape, the water-collecting capability and mechanical strength are the same as those of fresh-made ones. The water-collection process of a 1-month-old cavity-microfiber Supplementary Fig. Moreover, the cycling durability of water collection Fig. In contrast, the shape of the knots formed by oil droplets shrinks greatly Fig. Therefore, the long-term durability of our cavity-microfibers enables the repeated water collection over time.
The durability of cavity-microfibers. Insets showing the cavity knots maintain their shapes after cycles of water collection. All error bars in a and b indicate the standard deviations over five independent measurements. Comparing with two parallel cavity-microfibers, the intersectional configuration substantially increases the length of TCL Supplementary Fig. Indeed, the water capacity of two intersectional cavity-microfibers is 8. Moreover, if a water droplet is located on a knot near the intersection, it moves towards the intersection and coalesce with the droplet at the intersection.
Thus, the water droplet transports directionally toward the intersection, where the water capacity is largest among any other locations on the cavity-microfiber. Water collection of cavity-microfiber topological networks. All error bars in c , h and i indicate the standard deviations over five independent measurements.
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Liferafts on Ships: SOLAS Requirements, Safety Features & Launching Procedure
Robinson has produced of number of shows for the network, most notably Iyanla: Fix My Life. I was being the loyal wife and it threw me for a loop. It's safe to say the former Mrs. Epps was real bitter about the way her marriage ended and didn't make it easy for Mike to jump ship!
Stephanie Lee Stevens Institute of Technology, slee23 stevens. Debashish Mukherji University of British Columbia, debashish. Robert Hickey Pennsylvania State University, rjh64 psu. Gu usm. Tad Koga Stony Brook University, tadanori.
The following 21 categories and subcategories are those that will be used at ISEF To view and download this page as a PDF, click here. Many projects could easily fit into more than one ISEF category. We highly recommend that you review the entire listing of the categories and sub-categories before choosing the category that most accurately describes your project. Furthermore, most regional and state competitions do not use subcategories. You should carefully consider which subcategory best describes your project because your judges will be assigned based on their expertise in your chosen subcategory. Please note: Each Society-affiliated fair determines the categories for their competition. Please check with your affiliated fair s for the appropriate category listings at that level of competition.
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Occupational Safety General Regulations. Occupational Health and Safety Act. Table of Contents. Part 1 - Title and Definitions. Part 2 - General. Duties of parties. Conflict with these regulations. Compliance with standards incorporated by reference. Compliance with policies, procedures, plans and codes of practice. Communicating and updating policies, procedures, plans and codes of practice. Consulting with Committee on policies and procedures.
Mike Epps Ties The Knot -Tha Wire
The internet consists of tiny bits of code that move around the world, traveling along wires as thin as a strand of hair strung across the ocean floor. Nearly , miles of cable already connect the continents to support our insatiable demand for communication and entertainment. Companies have typically pooled their resources to collaborate on undersea cable projects, like a freeway for them all to share. Getting it there is an exacting and time-intensive process. A foot ship named Durable will eventually deliver the cable to sea. But first, the cable is assembled inside a sprawling factory a few hundred yards away, in Newington, N. The factory, owned by the company SubCom, is filled with specialized machinery used to maintain tension in the wire and encase it in protective skin.
Спросил Ричард. - Им разрешат продолжить обычные занятия, естественно, с некоторыми ограничениями. В оккупированных зонах мы установили законы нашего общества и всем будут распоряжаться наши сограждане. - Тогда, быть может, вы, в качестве дополнения или приложения к документу о капитуляции, обещаете сохранить жизнь и безопасность октопауков и всех остальных существ, если они не будут нарушать законы, установленные на оккупированной вами территории.
Глаза Накамуры сузились.
Ричард. - выдавила. - Мы знаем, мама, - ответил Патрик. "Как могут они знать.
В особенности оптимизаторы не одобряют посещения жилых массивов, которые расположены южнее. В основном октопауки знакомятся с Альтернативным Доменом, совершая короткую поездку на последней неделе матрикуляции.
Здесь было куда прохладнее, чем в Изумрудном городе. Арчи и Синий Доктор устремились .
Они оснастили его собственной конструкцией, чтобы повысить мои способности. Около двадцати лет назад они также установили мне более совершенную операционную систему, чтобы усилить мыслительный процесс.
И если будет объявлена война, я, как участник сегодняшней дискуссии, буду внесен в терминационные Ричард и Николь потеряли дар речи. - Единственное оправдание войны с точки зрения октопаука, - продолжил Арчи, - это недвусмысленная угроза самому существованию колонии.
И когда подобная угроза появляется, наш вид претерпевает метаморфозу и воюет не зная милосердия, пока опасность не минует или же не погибнет сама колония. Многие поколения назад мудрые оптимизаторы осознали, что октопаук, задумавший или совершивший убийство, необратимо изменяется психологически и препятствует мирному функционированию колонии.