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Ware aggregates, components and parts of automobiles, automobile spare parts

Ware aggregates, components and parts of automobiles, automobile spare parts

Everything you need to know about classification of overheads. Classification of overheads refers to the process of grouping costs according to their common characteristics. The overhead costs are incurred not for any particular job, work-order, process or unit but for the business as a whole and include all costs other than direct material costs, direct wages and direct expenses. Overhead expenses, unlike chargeable expenses, are indirect expenses which cannot be identified with particular products, job, processes or work orders and hence cannot be allocated. These costs do not relate to any one specific cost centre.

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Conveyor parts

VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Components of Automobile Engine - Part 2

Last updated: September 1, Y ou started your morning with ceramics—and they'll dominate your day. Inside your brick, cement, and glass home, you woke to the quartz clock, washed in the tiled bathroom, breakfasted on pottery cups and bowls.

Maybe you worked all day at a computer packed with ceramic-based electronic components, like microchips , capacitors , or resistors , before heading back home for a glass of wine, gobbled down dinner from those same pottery plates, and sat in front of the liquid-crystal TV or Gorilla glass smartphone , before heading for bed and setting the quartz clock, ready to repeat again tomorrow.

Though it's far from obvious, we live in a ceramic world, just as people have for thousands of years. But what exactly are ceramics? Photo: A ceramic Percy Pig piggy bank. It started life as a soft piece of clay molded to shape, fired hard in a pottery kiln, then painted with bright colors. Photo: Porcelain plates are very familiar examples of ceramics, but there are other, much more surprising uses of ceramics too. Glass, tiles, pottery, porcelain, bricks, cement, diamond, and graphite—you can probably see from this little list that "ceramics" is a very broad term, and one we're going to have difficulty defining.

What do all these very different materials have in common? From a chemical viewpoint, we define ceramics in terms of what they're not. So you'll find most science textbooks and dictionaries telling you ceramics are nonmetallic and inorganic solids ones that aren't metal or based on carbon compounds ; in other words, ceramics are what we're left with when we take away metals and organic materials including wood , plastics , rubber , and anything that was once alive.

Some books also try to define ceramics as "refractory" materials, which is a technical, materials science term that means capable of putting up with everyday abuses like extremes of temperature, attacks from acids and alkalis, and general wear-and-tear.

It often seems easier to define materials in terms of their properties how they behave when we heat them, pass electricity through them, or soak them in water, for example. But once we start doing that, things can get confusing. For example, graphite a form, or allotrope, of carbon is considered a ceramic because it's nonmetallic and inorganic, yet unlike most ceramics it's soft, wears easily, and is a good conductor of electricity.

So if you looked only at the properties of graphite, you wouldn't consider it a ceramic at all. Diamond another form of carbon is also a ceramic for the same reason; its properties couldn't be more different from those of graphite, but they're similar to those of other ceramics.

Like modern ceramics such as tungsten carbide, diamond has long been used in cutting and drilling tools. People first started making ceramics thousands of years ago pottery, glass, and brick are among the oldest human-invented materials , and we're still designing brand new ceramic materials today—things like catalytic converters for today's cars and high-temperature superconductors for tomorrow's computers. There's quite a big difference between age-old, general-purpose ceramics like brick and glass and modern, engineered ceramics that are sometimes designed for a single, specific purpose, such as filtering soot from a truck's dirty diesel engine or making a drill bit that lasts five times longer.

That's partly why materials scientists like to divide ceramics into two kinds: traditional, and advanced or engineering ceramics. Photo: Traditional ceramics: Toilets are a good example, though the lid and seat are typically made of plastic or wood.

Bricks, pottery, glass, porcelain, tiles, cement, and concrete are our classic, time-tested ceramics. Although they all have different uses, we can still think of them as general-purpose materials. Take tiles, for example. We can put them inside our homes or outside; on the walls, the floors, or the roof; and we can stick glass in our windows or poke away at it on our smartphone screens—we can even drink champagne out of it. Ceramics like this are ancient materials—ones our ancestors would recognize—that have gradually found more and more uses as the centuries have worn on.

By contrast, advanced ceramics are ones that have been engineered mostly since the early 20th century for highly specific applications. For example, silicon nitrides and tungsten carbides are designed for making exceptionally hard, high-performance cutting tools—though they do have other uses as well. Most modern engineered ceramics are metal oxides, carbides, and nitrides, which means they're compounds made by combining atoms of a metal with oxygen, carbon, or nitrogen atoms.

So, for example, we have tungsten carbide, silicon carbide, and boron nitride, which are hard, cutting-tool ceramics; aluminum oxide alumina and silicon dioxide are used in making integrated circuits "microchips" ; and lithium-silicon oxide is used to make the heat-protective nose cones on space rockets. High-temperature superconductors are made from crystals of yttrium, barium, copper , and oxygen.

Not all high-tech ceramic materials are simple compounds. Some are composite materials , in which the ceramic forms a kind of background material called the matrix, which is reinforced with fibers of another material often carbon fibers, or sometimes fibers of a totally different ceramic. A material like this is known as a ceramic matrix composite CMC. Photo: Advanced ceramics: Silicon and carbon fuse to form silicon carbide powder left , which can be made into a hard and hard-wearing ceramic called silicon carbide that can survive high temperatures.

It has many applications, from drills and cutting tools to components middle, right that can withstand high temperatures in gas-turbine engines that would melt ordinary metal parts. Ceramic components are also used in ordinary car engines for the same reason.

As we've already seen, the most important general property of ceramics is that they're refractory : they're rough-and-tumble materials that will put up with fair amounts of abuse in the most ordinary and extraordinary situations. Just consider, most of us tile our kitchens and bathrooms because ceramic tiles are hard, waterproof, largely resistant to scratches, and keep on looking good for year upon year; but engineers also put very different!

Most ceramics are also nonmagnetic materials, although ferrites iron-based ceramics happen to make great magnets because of their iron content.

Those are the useful points, but, thinking about traditional ceramics like glass or porcelain, you'll also have noticed one major drawback: they can be fragile and brittle, and they'll smash or shatter if you drop them subject them to "mechanical shock" or suddenly change their temperature "thermal shock".

The interesting question is why ceramics behave like this—and the no-less-interesting answer boils down to materials science : it's all to do with how the atoms inside are bonded together. That explains how most materials work. In metals, for example, atoms are relatively weakly bonded which is why most metals are fairly soft ; their electrons are shared between them in a kind of sea that can "wash" right through them, which is simplistically speaking why they conduct electricity and heat.

A material like rubber , on the other hand, is made of long-chain molecules polymers that are very weakly attached to one another; that's why raw, white, latex rubber is so stretchy and why black, vulcanized rubber like that used in car tires is harder and stronger, because heat-and-sulfur treatment makes strong cross-links form between the polymer chains, holding them tightly together.

All the electrons are locked up in bonds of various kinds none are free to carry an electric current , and that's why rubber is generally a good insulator. Ceramics are different again. Their atoms are ionically bonded like sodium and chlorine in sodium chloride, common salt , which holds them firmly in place making ceramics hard and strong and locks up all their electrons so, unlike in metals, there are no free electrons to carry heat or electricity. Metals can bend, stretch, and be drawn into wires because their rows of regularly packed atoms will slide past one another.

But in a ceramic, there are no rows of atoms; the atoms are either locked in a regularly repeating three-dimensional crystal or randomly arranged to make what's called an amorphous solid a solid without a neat and tidy, internal crystalline structure. If you whack a lump of metal with a hammer, the mechanical energy you supply is dissipated as layers of atoms jump past one another; in other words, the metal bends out of shape.

If you whack a ceramic such as glass, there's nowhere for that energy to go—no way for the glass to deform and soak up the blow—so it shatters instead. This explains why ceramics are both hard and brittle. As we've already seen, not all ceramics behave this way. Graphite is soft because it's made of layers of carbon atoms that will slide and shear that's why a graphite pencil leaves lines on paper ; diamond is hard because it has a much more rigid crystalline structure.

Clay dug from the ground is soft and pliable because, like graphite, its atoms are made of flat sheets that can slip past one another, held together only by weak bonds. When you add water to clay, the polar water molecules positively charged at one end, negative at the other end help to pull those bonds apart, making the clay even more malleable. When you fire clay, the water evaporates and the aluminum, silicon, and oxygen atoms lock into a rigid structure made from aluminum silicate, bonded together by silicate glass—and that's why fired clay is so hard.

Artwork: Why do ceramics and metals behave differently? If you apply too much force, the only thing a ceramic can do is break apart: the energy has nowhere else to go. That's why metals are good conductors. That's why ceramics tend to be good insulators non-conductors. From glass and brick to porcelain and cement, we've already seen that there are countless different things that can be described as ceramics; not surprisingly, then, there are literally hundreds of different applications for ceramic materials in everything from aerospace to zoo-keeping.

Airplane jet engines , for example, are examples of machines called gas turbines, which work by burning fuel mixtures at high temperatures to make a fiery exhaust that powers a plane through the air.

The need to cope with incredible temperatures explains why engine components are often made from ceramics.

It was for exactly the same reason that 31, ceramic tiles were used on the now-retired Space Shuttle to protect it from burning up on its way back to Earth from space.

Tragically, it was the failure of a ceramic tile that led to the demise of the Space Shuttle Columbia as it struggled to return to Earth in February The next generation of reusable space planes is expected to use higher-performance tiles made from ceramic-matrix composites.

Photo: Ceramic tiles helped to protect the Space Shuttle from heat when it came back into Earth's atmosphere. If aerospace is an extraordinary use for extraordinary ceramics, construction is one of the best known uses for ordinary, everyday ceramics.

Even in our modern age of plentiful plastics, brick, glass, cement, concrete, porcelain, and tiles of all kinds are still the raw materials from which most buildings are made. The tools used on construction sites are often made with ceramics too. Whether you're cutting glass, drilling holes in tile, grinding concrete, or sawing through brick, engineering ceramics like tungsten or silicon carbide will help you knock more traditional ceramics into shape, generally working better, for longer, than traditional tools made of steel.

Ceramics aren't always at the cutting edge; a lot of the time, we don't notice them at all—especially when they're hiding inside electrical and electronic equipment.

Anything with an electric motor that's every chore-busting, electric-powered machine in your home contains magnets, and quite often they're made from ferrite ceramics.

You'll also find ferrite magnets, or other kinds of ceramic transducers, in loudspeakers and headphones.

While we use conducting metals like copper to carry electricity from place to place, we have to use ceramics to insulate high-voltage electricity in places like power plant generators and transformers. Sometimes, ceramics insulate us from electricity and heat at the same time: heating elements are often built into ceramic holders, electric cooktops are made from high-performance ceramic glass, and incandescent lamps have glass bulbs that protect us from heat and electricity while protecting their filaments from the atmosphere.

The most advanced electrical use of ceramics is probably in high-temperature superconductors materials with virtually no electrical resistance. Photo: High-temperature superconductors made from ceramics could allow electricity to flow through things with little or no resistance, making possible technologies like superfast computers and "floating" Maglev trains. Picture courtesy of US Department of Energy. It's perhaps surprising, then, to find so many applications for ceramics in the world of medicine.

How about the piezoelectric transducers that create ultrasonic waves used in pregnancy scans? Or what about dentures false teeth made from porcelain or glass eyes? Or bone implants made from silicon nitride, which are cleverly designed to be porous so they promote natural bone growth? If you're wondering what ceramics have to do with zoology as I suggested up above , you'll find plenty of dogs that—just like us humans—have had ceramic implants in their bones and teeth.

Ceramics generally start with a clay-based material dug from the ground that's mixed with water to make it soft and flexible and other materials, squashed into shape, then fired at high-temperature in a large industrial oven called a kiln.

Firing is what most ceramics have in common; the very word "ceramic" originally comes from Sanskrit and means "to burn. Photo: Ceramic tiles get their hardness from being fired. Although that makes them extremely durable, it also means they're relatively fragile and brittle: they crack quite easily.

The US Geological Survey lists six types of clay mined in the United States: common clay, kaolin China clay , bentonite, ball clay, fuller's Earth, and fire clay, and each has a number of different uses:. Each one of these also has numerous different grades and qualities, so it's probably more accurate to talk about China clays or Ball clays in the plural.

Ball clay, for example, is used to make things like fine porcelain tableware and bathroom suites, but even within a single ball clay mine, different grades of clay will be simultaneously excavated from different areas and kept separate or blended in various ways for different end uses. Before they're fired, raw ceramics can be shaped in all kinds of ways; different manufacturing processes are used for different end products.

So pipes, for example, are made by extrusion squeezing clay through a hole, a bit like toothpaste from a tube. Glass is made by blowing, molding, or being floated on top of water the float-glass process by which large, flat windows are made.

Contemporary society is demanding more services based on smart environments all the time. Smart grids, smart metering, home automation, eHealth, logistics, transportation, environmental monitoring are just a few examples of the new wave of services we will be widely using in the following years.

After the first two years of your warranty, your vehicle will be covered by a third year warranty if:. This warranty will terminate three years from the date of original registration or at 60, miles, whichever is soonest. Once the three-year warranty has expired, you can purchase a further approved warranty for additional years and higher mileages. Items where the lifetime of the component is or can be influenced by driving style and external factors will only be considered under the terms of the warranty for a period of six months or 6, miles whichever is soonest. Beyond that limit, the defects must be classified as wear and tear and will not be covered by the vehicle warranty unless a clear manufacturing defect is identified.

Classification of Overheads

Ground and flight tests; diagnostic systems designed for aircraft; support for aviation technology management; aviation systems; air weapons; intelligence, command and training systems. Manufacture of various types of springs multicore spring, helical spring, compression spring, torsion springs, disc, hairpins, formed wires etc. C4Defence is Turkey's first online defence magazine. The journal is published monthly in Turkish and English. Current developments, as well as the future of the sector, is widely analysed at the magazine. Solutions to problems related to safety and environment: in the area of defense, civil protection, in the specific field of CBRN decontamination and detoxification, sanitation, special industrial applications. Crystal Instruments designs, sells, and services hardware and software for machine vibration monitoring, dynamic measurement and environmental testing.

List of auto parts

From the catalytic converter to the alternator, your car is filled with a host of parts that come together to power your vehicle down the road. While it may feel like a foreign language, having a working understanding of the parts of your vehicle will make you an educated consumer that will be able to converse with your mechanic when the time comes. Check out this infographic to learn more about some of the key parts in your vehicle. Seeing how these parts relate to each other is extremely helpful in visualizing how your vehicle functions.

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This is a list of automotive parts mostly for vehicles using internal combustion engines which are manufactured components of automobiles :. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is a list of automotive parts mostly for vehicles using internal combustion engines which are manufactured components of automobiles : Contents. Backup camera Dashcam. Ammeter Clinometer Dynamometer Fuel gauge Manometer Hydrometer Odometer also called milometer or mileometers Speedometer Tachometer also called rev counters Temperature gauge Tire pressure gauge Vacuum gauge Voltmeter Water temperature meter Oil pressure gauge. Main article: Automotive lighting. Engine bay lighting Fog light also called foglamp Spotlight Headlight also called headlamp Headlight motor Interior light and lamp License plate lamp also called number plate lamp or registration plate lamp Side lighting Tail light Tail light cover Indicator light turn signal control, also called the turn signal lever, also called the "turn signal stalk", typically mounted on the steering shaft behind the steering wheel.

Composition Scheme under GST

Last updated: September 1, Y ou started your morning with ceramics—and they'll dominate your day. Inside your brick, cement, and glass home, you woke to the quartz clock, washed in the tiled bathroom, breakfasted on pottery cups and bowls.

Data warehouse is an information system that contains historical and commutative data from single or multiple sources. It simplifies reporting and analysis process of the organization.

Quality Control Executive -Manufacturing 5. Service Maintenance Engineer 7. Production Manager Disclaimer : Naukri Salary Tool relies entirely on salary information provided by jobseekers on Naukri. To maintain confidentiality, only aggregated information is shared here. Employer or Industry specific information is only indicative and has not been validated by the respective employers or industry bodies or Naukri. Salary for same profiles may vary across employers or within the same organisation based on various factors such as location, skills or experience required, levels of responsibility etc. Reach out to more than recruiters.

Remanufacturing as a key component of a circular economy is viewed as being the use10 and the Automotive Parts Remanufacturers Association (APRA) which Some enterprises hold that refabrication is the industrial repair of products remanufacturing This includes easy disassembly, modular design or wear.

Shower Spares & Parts

Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. Published on Aug 21, Wagons Learning partners almost all the key automobile, ancillary and allied companies to fulfill the manpower development needs of the segment. From product training to interpersonal skills, from training dealer sales force to companies direct sales force, from grooming leaders to team building, from sales training to customer retention training Wagons Learning has offered these and many other training solutions to the Automobile companies and the ancillary units, to fuel their growth.

FI-WARE Internet of Things (IoT) Services Enablement

GATX covered hopper cars are offered with gross weight capacities ranging from , to , lb, and they can be unlined to transport products such as cement. America's freight railroads operate the safest, most efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally sound freight transportation system in the world — and the Association of American Railroads AAR is committed to keeping it that way. The two-piece poly hopper cover shields de-icing material from the elements. The Tyco line of slot car products was recently acquired by the Mattel Toy Company. Ever since Western Trailers built what was quite possibly the first aluminum cattle trailer in the West back in , our reputation has been built on quality, innovation and service. CF Three-Bay Car - produced from on. Please review our website and you will find that we are the best choice in supplying your next and future pneumatic rail car unloading systems. The bottom section of each compartment has a gate for unloading. Since , carrying the load and turning more miles on rail than anyone—with new chapters yet to be written. The Summer of , my modeling period, was a time of change for the Reading open hopper car fleet.

Hopper Car Diagram

With the threshold for registration under GST being as low as INR 20 lakh, a large number of small and medium size businesses would now come under the new tax regime. Considering these Organisations may not have the infrastructure and resources to comply with the regular provisions, a Composition Scheme under GST has been introduced. Let us take a look at the applicability, eligibility criteria, conditions, and other provisions of this scheme.

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Schedule G —Part-day Public Holidays. Apprentices including adult and school-based apprentices and trainees.

One of the biggest issues related to property, plant and equipment is accounting for spare parts, servicing equipment, stand-by equipment and similar items. IFRS standards are pretty silent about this topic, the guidance is very limited and as a result, companies need to rely on careful assessment of the situation and their judgment. The standard IAS 16 , paragraph 8 specifically says that spare parts are recognised in accordance with this IFRS when they meet the definition of property, plant and equipment thus they need to meet the definition of PPE. If not, then spare parts might be considered PPE.

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