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Industrial commercial engines for cars and motorcycles

Industrial commercial engines for cars and motorcycles

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Renewed demand for small engines

VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Horsepower vs Torque - A Simple Explanation

A flat-twin engine is a two-cylinder internal combustion engine with the cylinders on opposite sides of the crankshaft. The most common type of flat-twin engine is the boxer-twin engine , where both cylinders move inwards and outwards at the same time.

The flat-twin design was patented by Karl Benz in and the first production flat-twin engine was used in the Lanchester 8 hp Phaeton car released in The flat-twin engine was used in several other cars since, however a more common usage is in motorcycles; early models oriented the cylinders in line with the frame, however later models switched to the cylinders being perpendicular to the frame to provide even cooling across both cylinders.

Flat-twin engines were also used in several aircraft up until the s and in various stationary applications from the s to the s. Most flat-twin engines use a boxer configuration for the crankshaft and are therefore called "boxer-twin" engines. The evenly spaced firing order also assists in reducing vibration. The equal and opposite forces in a boxer-twin engine do however generate a rocking couple , due to the offset distance between the pistons along the crankshaft.

A commonly used ignition system is wasted spark , [2] which is a simple ignition system using a double-ended coil firing both spark plugs on each revolution i. This system is distributorless and requires only a single contact breaker and coil for the engine.

The boxer-twin configuration can cause pressuring of the crankcase during each inward piston stroke and de-pressurisation during each outward piston stroke, since both pistons are moving inwards or outwards at the same time. This was achieved by using a one-way valve a leather or rubber flap over a hole in the crankcase , to let air escape the crankcase but not enter it.

The beginnings of the flat-twin engine were in , when Karl Benz obtained a patent for the design. The 2CV was powered by an air-cooled boxer-twin engine.

Also in , the Panhard Dyna X was released with front-wheel drive and an air-cooled boxer-twin engine. Several rear-engined cars were also produced with boxer-twin engines originally designed for motorcycles, such as the Puch , the BMW and the BMW The Brazilian manufacturer Gurgel Motores used a water-cooled boxer-twin engine Volkswagen air-cooled boxer-four in several models from The Toyota U engine was an air-cooled flat-twin engine produced from Introduced in the Toyota Publica subcompact car, the U engine was also used in the Toyota MiniAce small commercial vehicle and the Toyota Sports sports car.

The benefits of using a flat-twin engine mounted with the crankshaft running perpendicular to the frame therefore the cylinders being in line with the frame are a low centre of gravity [13] and that a belt-drive or chain-drive system can be used to transmit drive to the rear wheel.

The first flat-twin motorcycle engine was the built in by the Light Motors Company in the United Kingdom. Other early flat-twin motorcycles used a similar layout, with their cylinders aligned along the frame and therefore with the crankshaft running transverse to the frame.

In the main supplier of rear-hub gearboxes, Sturmey-Archer , introduced a 3-speed countershaft gearbox with integral kick-starter, [18] which posed a design problem for motorcycles with transversely-mounted flat-twin engines. This gearbox could be relatively easily located behind a single-cylinder or V-twin engine, however this arrangement would result in an excessively long wheelbase for flat-twin engines.

Solutions to this problem included using a countershaft below the engine as used by the Douglas Fairy , [19] or a gearbox located above the engine, [13] [20] although in some cases the cylinders were short enough to use the gearbox in the traditional location behind the engine.

In , most flat-twin motorcycles still used a transversely-mounted engine. The European models at this time included the Bradbury 3. The main benefit of mounting a flat-twin engine with the crankshaft in line with the frame therefore the cylinders sitting sideways in the frame is that an air-cooled engine receives the same amount of cooling for each cylinder. However, many modern motorcycles reduce this effect by rotating flywheels or alternators in the opposite direction to that of the crankshaft.

One of the first motorcycles with a longitudinally-mounted flat-twin engine was the ABC , which was built in the United Kingdom. Over time, longitudinal mounting became more common for flat-twin engines. In , the Pearse monoplane which would later become one of the first aircraft to achieve flight was powered by a flat-twin engine built on a farm by a hobbyist inventor.

Most piston-engined aircraft used more than two cylinders, however other flat-twin aircraft engines from the s and s include the American Aeronca E and Aeronca E , the British Bristol Cherub , and the Czechoslovakian Praga B2. In larger aircraft, flat-twin engines have been used in auxiliary power units APUs. A notable example was made by ABC Motors in the s and s. The Maytag 'Model 72' flat-twin engines— produced from until some time between and — were used in various applications including clothes washing machines.

After , Enfield produced flat-twin diesel engines, with applications including farm and marine use. Two-stroke flat-twins were often used as outboard motors for boats, [ when?

In the s, they were largely replaced by straight-twin two-stroke engines, which were easier to start and no longer had excessive amounts of vibration. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For Soviet radar nicknamed "flat twin", see 5N65 radar. The Encyclopedia of the Motorcycle. London, UK: Dorling Kindersley. Archived from the original on 27 June Grantham, Lincolnshire, UK: Oui2. Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved Edwards, David ed.

Cycle World. Retrieved 17 April Archived from the original on 19 January The Globe and Mail. Toronto, Canada. Archived from the original on Period Cars. Feltham, Middlesex, UK: Hamlyn. Car and Driver. Lanchester Twin-Crank Twin.

One crank lived above the other, and each piston had three connecting rods—two light outer ones and a heavier one in the center. The light rods went to one crank, the heavy rods to the other, and the two shafts counterrotated. Standard Catalog of American Cars Krause Publications.

The Complete Catalogue of British Cars - e-book ed. Classic Motorcycles Third impression ed. The Hamlyn Publishing Group. The Motor Cycle. October b. American Motorcyclist. Retrieved 19 April Like the early Douglases, the Model O had its engine placed in the frame with the cylinders facing fore and aft, rather than sticking out to each side Mitchel, Doug Harley-Davidson Chronicle.

Wood, Bill, ed. March a. March Motorcycle Design and Technology English ed. However, it does create some problems for longitudinal development of the bike because the boxer cylinders have to be positioned high up from the ground in order to protect them from scraping the ground when leant over in turns. Motorcycle Cruiser. Source Interlink Media. Though the Valkyrie also has a longitudinal crankshaft, this torque reaction has been eliminated by making some of the components, such as the alternator, spin the opposite direction of the engine.

The Laverda V6. Stephen Battisson. Archived from the original on July 8, By arranging the rest of the engine internals to rotate in the opposite direction to the crankshaft their forces are cancelled out without having to resort to the weight, complexity and friction associated with two crankshafts. Retrieved 10 August University of Waikato. Poulsen, C. Both lecturers discussed the claims of the auxiliary engine for supplying service power.

This is a well-known British example, the A. Retrieved September 3, Starting procedure is as follows: Starting engine is primed by closing electric primer switch, then ignition of turbojet and ignition and electric starting motor of Riedel engine are turned on this engine can also be started manually by pulling a cable.

After the Riedel unit has reached a speed of about rpm, it automatically engages the compressor shaft of the turbojet. At about rpm of the starting engine, starting fuel pump is turned on, and at 1, rpm the main J-2 fuel is turned on. Cambridge, England: Patrick Stephens. March—April Gas Engine Magazine. The twin, or 72 as it was commonly referred to, was used primarily as a source of power for the Maytag washing machines.

Even as late as the early '30s, some brands of washers were hand operated; thus a ready power source such as the twin had a great deal of influence on Americans' work habits. The Small-Engine Handbook.

The road can be an unpredictable place and you need to be protected against every challenge that comes your way. The film starts in the morning, as lights slowly comes in between the trees, we see the sight of the.

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Motorcycles rev up in Southern Asia

Bolero Ozon. Plunkett Research, Ltd. Plunkett's Automobile Industry Almanac Jack W. The automobile industry is evolving rapidly on a worldwide basis. Manufacturers are merging, component design and manufacture are now frequently outsourced instead of being created in-house, brands are changing and the giant auto makers are expanding deeper into providing financial services to car buyers. The skyrocketing price of gas spurs developments in hybrid technology and clean diesel, as manufacturers look for ways to improve fuel efficiency.

Motorcycle engine management

Bolero Ozon. Plunkett Research, Ltd. Jack W. The automobile industry is evolving rapidly on a worldwide basis.

Bolero Ozon. Plunkett Research, Ltd.

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Polaris Inc. The company's corporate headquarters is in Medina, Minnesota. Robin a subsidiary of Subaru Corporation previously developed and supplied all-terrain vehicle ATV and snowmobile engines for Polaris Inc. Starting in with the Polaris Magnum 4-stroke ATV and in , with the introduction of the "twin " snowmobile engine Polaris started the development and production of in-house produced power plants, known as the "Liberty" line of engines, now found in many models across their current production lines. Since that time Polaris has continued to develop their in-house engine production capacity, now designing and manufacturing all of their own power plants, while maintaining the partnership with Subaru. In , Polaris relocated a portion of its utility and sport vehicle assembly to Mexico. Components manufactured in Osceola, Wisconsin and the vehicle assembly in Roseau, Minnesota. The vast majority of powertrain and vehicles for the off-road line are manufactured in the Osceola and Roseau facilities, respectively. Both the Victory and Indian motorcycle brands are American made with complete powertrains and vehicle assembly located in Osceola, Wisconsin and Spirit Lake, Iowa , respectively. Edgar had dropped out of school after the eighth grade in David Johnson and company employees Paul Knochenmus and Orlen Johnson, who was the first person to ride a Polaris, decided to create a vehicle that could travel through snow.

Futuristic bike concept with series potential – EDAG Motorcycle team As with passenger cars, the internal combustion engine has long since ceased to be the.

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When Sebastian Sturm, a member of the Motorcycle team at EDAG Munich, presents his innovative motorcycle concept to his friends, it is sure to meet with incredulous astonishment. Even experienced bikers will look twice and have to rub their eyes in disbelief. Because the bike's handlebars appear to hover above the front wheel, with no connection to the bike. The classic telescopic fork is missing, and it looks as though it has been airbrushed out. The year-old is not, however, a Hollywood set decorator or artist for science fiction comics - in fact, Sebastian is a Bachelor of Engineering, and has been working as a chassis design engineer at "EDAG Motorcycle" at the Munich branch for the last 4 years. I really didn't like the way the bike bucked during braking with the classic telescopic fork.

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This is due to the relative simplicity of motorcycle production compared with a passenger or commercial vehicle, as it utilizes fewer parts per unit. We believe this could ultimately provide Uganda with the expertise to establish full motor vehicle production. High motorcycle ownership rates in the East African region provide ample market access for locally produced motorcycles in Uganda.

A flat-twin engine is a two-cylinder internal combustion engine with the cylinders on opposite sides of the crankshaft. The most common type of flat-twin engine is the boxer-twin engine , where both cylinders move inwards and outwards at the same time.

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Our office is closed from 23 December to 5 January. We are back for you from Monday 6 January. The internationally established and independent Swiss company Suter Industries has been developing state-of-the-art engines, drivetrain systems and vehicles for the automotive industry for more than 20 years. You receive expert support from the initial concept to the start of production.

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