In local daily life, communities in the Pacific do not really make a distinction between natural and cultural heritage. For many Pacific Islanders, land and sea marks are inherited through ancestral transmission and the relation between nature and culture is embedded in their cultural visions and practices Descola ; Hviding Universal environmental features such as reef passages are therefore also given, in some places, local meaning by specific references to historical events and cultural views on how the world is formed and maintained Kirch et al. In Tahitian oral history, Tahiti is conceptualized as a fish, with the head located in Taiarapu the small peninsula of southwest Tahiti , the stomach in Mataeia the western part of Tahiti and the tail in Faaa the northern part of Tahiti.
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- Collagen extracted from fish – better for the climate, suitable for vegetarians
- Safe Food for Canadians Regulations: Glossary of key terms
- Archived - Fish and seafood
- Food system
- Fish feed industry changing as aquaculture takes on larger global role
- Commodity Prices Forecast 2019-2030 | Data and Charts
- International Commodity Specialist (Fish and Aquaculture)
- Sustainable Seafood
- Fishery commodities classification
Collagen extracted from fish – better for the climate, suitable for vegetariansVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: On Farm Floating Fish Feed Preparation Method - Step By Step Process
Although the Safe Food for Canadians Regulations SFCR came into force on January 15, , certain requirements are being phased in over the following 12 to 30 months. For more information, refer to the SFCR timelines. Additional terms are also included and have generally been defined using their ordinary meaning.
The Preventive Controls requirements in Part 4 of the Safe Food for Canadians Regulations define "acceptable level", with respect to a biological, chemical or physical hazard, as meaning "a level of a biological, chemical or physical hazard that does not present a risk of contamination of the food. In general terms, "accessible" refers to easily accessible usually without the need to remove obstruction or take an unnecessarily prolonged time to obtain access.
The Preventive Controls requirements in Part 4 of the Safe Food for Canadians Regulations define "agronomic input" as meaning "an input that is used in growing of fresh fruits or vegetables, and includes agricultural chemicals, biological controls, pollinators, commercial fertilizers, compost, compost tea, green manure, manure, mulch, row covers, soil amendments and pulp sludge.
In general terms, when used in the context of Part 2 — Trade of the SFCR, "alcoholic beverage" refers to a beverage that contains more than 0. In general terms, "animal welfare audit" refers to the on-site inspection or examination of specific slaughter activities in the establishment that have an impact on animal welfare of the food animals. It is a type of process audit of the operator's measures to prevent or mitigate key animal welfare risks using recognized set standards, best practices, performance criteria and benchmarks national or international.
In general terms, "batch thermal treatment" when used in Part 4 — Preventive Controls of the SFCR, refers to the application of a thermal treatment to a discrete group of products a batch as opposed to a continuous stream of products.
In general terms, "carcass parts" refers to parts from dressed carcasses. In general terms, "carry on business" when used in Part 2 — Trade of the SFCR refers to conducting activities related to the import of the food identified on the licence. In general terms, "cleaning" when used in Part 4 — Preventive Controls of the SFCR, refers to the removal of soil, food residue, dirt, grease or other objectionable matter.
Examples include shirts, pants, socks and uniforms. The Safe Food for Canadians Regulations define "commercially sterile" as meaning "has the same meaning as in section B. The Food and Drug Regulations define "commercially sterile" as meaning "the condition achieved in a food that has been processed by the application of heat, alone or in combination with other treatments, to render the food free from viable forms of microorganisms, including spores, capable of growing in the food at temperatures at which the food is designed normally to be held during distribution and storage.
The Safe Food for Canadians Regulations define "common name", in respect of a food, as meaning. In general terms, "communicable disease" when used in Part 4 — Preventive Controls of the SFCR, refers to a disease that can be transmitted through direct contact with an individual or indirect contact through food.
Examples of communicable diseases that can be transmitted through food include salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, and hepatitis A. In general terms, "competencies" when used in Part 4 — Preventive Controls of the SFCR, refers to the observable or measurable level of knowledge, skills, abilities, and behaviours required to successfully perform a particular job or activity. In general terms, "condemnation" refers to determination by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency that a food animal, its carcass, the parts of its carcass or its blood is inedible.
The Safe Food for Canadians Regulations define "consumer prepackaged", in respect of a food , as meaning "packaged in a container in the manner in which the food is ordinarily sold to or used or purchased by an individual — or in which the food may reasonably be expected to be obtained by an individual — without being repackaged, to be used for non-commercial purposes.
The Safe Food for Canadians Regulations defines "container" as meaning "an outer receptacle or covering that is used or to be used in connection with a food. It includes a wrapper and a confining band but does not include a conveyance or any container that is an integral part of a conveyance".
The Safe Food for Canadian Regulations define "contaminated", in respect of a food , as meaning "that the food contains any micro-organism, chemical substance, extraneous material or other substance or thing that may render the food injurious to human health or unsuitable for human consumption, including those that are not permitted under the Food and Drugs Act or those that do not comply with any limits or levels provided under that Act. The Preventive Controls requirements in Part 4 of the Safe Food for Canadians Regulations define this term as meaning "a measure that can be applied to prevent or eliminate any biological, chemical or physical hazard that presents a risk of contamination of a food or to reduce the hazard to an acceptable level.
In general terms, "control program"", in relation to meat products, refers to a subset of your preventive control plan that details any measures that are taken to meet a specific requirement. In general terms, "controlled atmospheric stunning" refers to exposing the animals to a mixture of breathing gases, for example carbon dioxide, that produce unconsciousness or death through hypoxia or asphyxia. This can occur by a rapid onset of unconsciousness or in multiple stages to induce a more gradual onset of unconsciousness.
The Safe Food for Canadians Act defines "conveyance" as meaning "a vessel, aircraft, train, motor vehicle, trailer or other means of transportation, including a cargo container. Note: refer to the separate definitions for conveyance or equipment and facility or conveyance. In general terms, "conveyance or equipment " when used in Part 4 — Preventive Controls of the SFCR, refers to anything that is used within the establishment to transport or manufacture, prepare, store, package, or label food or slaughter a food animal.
Note: Refer to the separate definitions for conveyance and facility or conveyance. In general terms, "corrective action" when used in Part 4 — Preventive Controls of the SFCR, refers to the actions taken to address a deviation from a preventive control plan.
This could include controlling affected food as necessary, conducting a root cause analysis and modifying the control measure or animal welfare measure to prevent recurrence. The Preventive Controls requirements in Part 4 of the Safe Food for Canadians Regulations define "critical control point" as meaning "a step at which the application of a control measure is essential to prevent or eliminate any biological, chemical or physical hazard that presents a risk of contamination of a food or to reduce the hazard to an acceptable level.
In general terms, "critical limit" when used in Part 4 — Preventive Controls of the SFCR, refers to the maximum or minimum set values that control a hazard at a critical control point. The Safe Food for Canadians Regulations define "dairy product" as meaning "milk or a food that is derived from milk, alone or combined with another food, and that contains no oil and no fat other than that of milk.
In general terms, "defect detection" refers to the act of identifying and removing viscera and carcasses with specified pathology and processing defects before and after evisceration.
The Safe Food for Canadians Act defines "document" as meaning "anything on which information that is capable of being understood by a person, or read by a computer or other device, is recorded or marked.
Note: This can include figures, graphs, records , pictures or videos. In addition, a document can be in hard copy or electronic. In general terms, "dressing procedures" refers to procedures to remove any parts that are not by nature edible and to allow better visualisation of all parts that may harbor a risk.
In general terms, "driving tools" refers to tools specialized for moving the food animals and can be hand-held tools or automatic equipment. Handheld driving tools include electric or vibrating prods, flags and capes. Automatic driving tools include the automatic gates used for moving pigs onto the gondolas for Controlled Atmospheric Stunning CAS. The Safe Food for Canadians Regulations define "egg" as meaning "an egg of a domestic chicken of the species Gallus domesticus or, in respect of a processed egg product , means that egg or an egg of a domestic turkey of the species Meleagris gallopavo.
It does not include a balut. The Safe Food for Canadians Regulations define "egg carton" as meaning "a package that is capable of being closed and of containing not more than 30 eggs in separate compartments. Current passing through the brain induces an immediate but non-fatal general convulsion that produces unconsciousness.
Current passing through the heart produces an immediate cardiac arrest that also leads shortly to unconsciousness and death; therefore, electrical stunning methods can be either reversible or irreversible depending on the equipment and operational parameters used.
The Safe Food for Canadians Act defines "establishment" as meaning "any place, including a conveyance, where a food commodity is manufactured, prepared, stored, packaged or labelled.
The term "establishment" is used throughout the Safe Food for Canadians Regulations. Part 4 — Preventive Controls applies to "establishment" in the following manner. For more information, refer to Section 2 — Application of Regulatory requirements: Preventive Controls. In the case of a person who handles fish in a conveyance, the establishment is the conveyance, such as a fishing vessel, where the person handles the fish.
Note: Establishment refers to the facility, the land on which the facility is built and any surrounding area where the food may be manufactured, prepared, stored, packaged or labelled or where food animals may be slaughtered. In general terms, "export" refers to sending food from Canada to a foreign state.
In general terms, "export certificate" includes an export certificate or other export permission, such as being on an export eligibility list. In general terms, "facility" when used in Part 4 — Preventive Controls of the SFCR, refers to the physical structure or building within an establishment where a person is.
In general terms, "facility or conveyance" when used in Part 4 — Preventive Controls of the SFCR, refers to the physical structure or means of transportation within the establishment where. Note: refer to the separate definitions for facility and conveyance. In general terms, "farmed game animal" refers to a food animal that is historically considered "wild" but has been raised for food production and is transported to an abattoir for traditional slaughter with stunning, eg.
The Safe Food for Canadians Regulations define "fish" to include "shellfish, crustaceans and other marine animals, and any of their parts, products and by-products.
In general terms, "fixed place of business" when used in Part 2 — Trade of the SFCR, refers to a permanent, physical business location. A post office box is not considered a fixed place of business. The Food and Drugs Act defines "food" as meaning "any article manufactured, sold or represented for use as food or drink for human beings, chewing gum, and any ingredient that may be mixed with food for any purpose whatever.
The Safe Food for Canadians Regulations define "food additive" as meaning "has the same meaning as in section B. The Safe Food for Canadians Regulations define "food animal" as meaning "a bird or mammal, other than a marine mammal, from which an edible meat product may be derived.
The term "food animal information document" is not specifically defined in the Safe Food for Canadians Act nor in the Safe Food for Canadians Regulations. In general terms, "food animal information document" refers to a document that is prepared and attested by the owner, or the person having care and control over the food animal prior to its arrival at slaughter, that details specifics regarding its rearing that will inform as to whether the food animal might harbor potential hazards, such as disease, chemical residues, physical hazards.
The Safe Food for Canadians Act defines "food commodity" as meaning "any food as defined in section 2 of the Food and Drugs Act ; any animal or plant, or any of its parts, from which food may be derived; or anything prescribed to be a food commodity. Note: For more information on prescribed food commodities, refer to sections 5, 6, 7, 17, 26, 27, and of the Safe Food for Canadians Regulations. In general terms, "footwear" when used in Part 4 — Preventive Controls of the SFCR refers to outer coverings for the feet, such as shoes, disposable footwear and rubber boots.
In general terms, "foreign animal disease" refers to a serious epizootic disease from which Canada is considered free, such as avian influenza. The Safe Food for Canadians Regulations define "fresh fruits or vegetables" as meaning "any fresh plant or any fresh edible fungus, or any part of such a plant or fungus, that is a food is considered to be a fresh fruit or vegetable.
Note: this meaning does not apply for the purposes of section Section covers the requirements for the fair and ethical trading practices of fresh fruits and vegetables. The Safe Food for Canadians Regulations define "game animal" as meaning "a wild ruminant, pig or bird - including a ruminant, pig or bird that lives in an enclosed territory under conditions of freedom similar to those of wild animals - that is a food animal and that is hunted for commercial use under an authorization issued by a competent authority.
In general terms, "good agricultural practices" refers to the general practices used in the planting, growing, harvesting, sorting, packing, storing and transporting of agricultural products that reduce risks of contamination.
In general terms, "good manufacturing practices" refers to general practices designed to ensure product quality and safety. They set appropriate standards and practices for product manufacturing, storing, handling and distribution.
In general terms, "grade" refers to examining a food against a set of requirements prescribed in the SFCR and determining the grade for that food. The Safe Food for Canadians Act defines "grade name" as meaning "a prescribed name, mark or designation of a food commodity. Section of the Safe Food for Canadians Regulations further specifies that, for the purposes of this definition, "the grade names that are set out in the Compendium and in the Grades Document are prescribed in respect of foods.
In general terms, "handle" when used in relation to animal welfare in Part 6, Division 7 — Meat Products and Food Animals of the SFCR, refers to the handling of food animals during all slaughter activities when any person is conducting an activity on the animal to achieve a specific outcome. This would include holding animals in lairage or holding areas, driving or moving, restraining, stunning and cutting to bleed the animal.
It also includes the use of any tool or equipment used for the activity. In general terms, "hazard" when used in Part 4 — Preventive Controls of the SFCR, refers to a biological, chemical or physical agent that has the potential to cause illness or injury to humans when present. In general terms, "hazard analysis" when used in Part 4 — Preventive Controls of the SFCR, refers to the process of collecting and interpreting information pertaining to potential hazards and conditions that may support the occurrence of hazards and identify which ones pose a significant risk to food safety.
In general terms, "hazard analysis critical control point", when used in the context of Part 4 - Preventive Controls of the SFCR, refers to an internationally recognized food safety system that identifies, evaluates, and controls hazards.
The Safe Food for Canadians Regulations define "hermetically sealed package" as meaning "a package that, due to its design, is secure against the entry of micro-organisms, including spores. In general terms, "humidity-control system" when used in Part 4 — Preventive Controls of the SFCR, refers to a system that adds or removes water vapour from indoor air to maintain the desired humidity level. In general terms, "humane killing", when used in relation to animal welfare in Part 6, Division 7 — Meat Products and Food Animals of the SFCR, refers to the killing of a food animal by an employee of the slaughter establishment to alleviate its suffering or for disease control purposes or for any other reason that it is not slaughtered.
Humane killing must be by an approved method, such as acceptable stunning methods that result in the death of the animal, for example penetrative captive bolt.
The carcass of the humanely killed food animal is not eligible for human consumption and the carcass must be conveyed to the inedible section of the facility. In general terms, "import" refers to bringing food into Canada from a foreign state. In general terms, "inedible", in relation to a food , refers to food not fit for human consumption, for example spoiled food, or contaminated food. In general terms, "inedible meat product" refers to any part of a food animal carcass that does not meet the requirements of section of the SFCR.
Although the Safe Food for Canadians Regulations SFCR came into force on January 15, , certain requirements are being phased in over the following 12 to 30 months. For more information, refer to the SFCR timelines. Additional terms are also included and have generally been defined using their ordinary meaning. The Preventive Controls requirements in Part 4 of the Safe Food for Canadians Regulations define "acceptable level", with respect to a biological, chemical or physical hazard, as meaning "a level of a biological, chemical or physical hazard that does not present a risk of contamination of the food.
Safe Food for Canadians Regulations: Glossary of key terms
Salmon will soon replace shrimp as the largest single global seafood commodity in terms of value. That stunning fact will have sizeable repercussions in the global seafood industry. One of the biggest challenges faced by the fish feed industry is the need to make optimal use of the approximately five million metric tons of fishmeal and one million metric tons of fish oil it consumes each year, and to find non-marine and other alternatives that meet the nutritional needs of both fish and humans. Fortunately, promising scientific research is opening a new and more sustainable path forward for fish feed.
Archived - Fish and seafood
The term food system is used frequently in discussions about nutrition, food, health, community economic development and agriculture. A food system includes all processes and infrastructure involved in feeding a population: growing, harvesting, processing, packaging, transporting, marketing , consumption, and disposal of food and food-related items. It also includes the inputs needed and outputs generated at each of these steps. A food system operates within and is influenced by social, political, economic and environmental contexts. It also requires human resources that provide labor, research and education.
Many fishermen in industrialized countries have had to give up their work. In many developing and newly-industrializing countries, however, fishing is a major branch of employment, not least because fish has developed into an important export commodity. As the main importers, the western industrialized countries have a responsibility to push for a low-impact, socially equitable fishing industry in the exporting nations. Fish as commodity. Fish — a foodstuff and the stuff of legends For millennia fish have been a vital source of human nutrition. Archaeological finds suggest that people have been catching fish since the Stone Age at least. For example, artefacts found in northern German river valleys include fishhooks made from bones and teeth as well as early spears with barbed hooks. But fish is more than just a food. In many cultures the fish is raised to near-mythical status.
Less joint and muscle pain, better skin, stronger nails and hair. Many people praise the effects of taking collagen supplements, and products containing the protein have invaded the market for health food products in recent years. The collagen currently on the market is usually extracted from cattle and pigs, which excludes vegetarians and some religious groups from using it.
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Fish feed industry changing as aquaculture takes on larger global role
Commodity Prices Forecast 2019-2030 | Data and Charts
Fish, as a highly perishable commodity, often undergoes treatments which prolong its shelf life and quality as food. Fish is also a very widely traded commodity. When considering statistical aspects related to fish and fish products in the fishery industry as a whole, one is faced with a wide variety of raw fishery materials, semi-processed and fully-processed commodities, crossing all the various fishery phases. The physical magnitude and value of the intake and output of the different kinds of fishery commodities can be measured in specified periods of time - days, weeks, seasons, years, etc. Statistics covering any of the above phases must be dovetailed, linked or integrated and the first indispensable step is an adequate fishery commodity classification. The classification can be used as statistical standard for more than one statistical system, e. The ISSCFC covers products derived from fish, crustaceans, molluscs and other aquatic animals, plants and residues caught for commercial, industrial or subsistence uses, by all types of fishing units operating in all aquatic environments, in inshore, offshore or high seas fishing. Commodities produced from the raw materials supplied by all kinds of aquaculture are also included. The original classification is presented in Annex R.
International Commodity Specialist (Fish and Aquaculture)
According to many resources, production of animal feed worldwide exceeded 1 billion tonnes in In this feed production of 1 billion tonnes for different animal groups, poultry feed group has the highest production amount with million tonnes of production. Fish feed is ranked as the fourth in the world feed production with the production amount of about 40 million tonnes.
The Agricultural Development Economics Division ESA conducts economic research and policy analysis related to all five of the Organization's strategic objectives food security and nutrition, sustainable agriculture, poverty reduction, inclusive food systems and resilient livelihoods. ESA also leads large programmes at country level on agricultural and food policy monitoring, climate smart agriculture CSA , agribusiness and food value chains, rural poverty, and food security information and analysis in support of national policies. The Sustainable Markets, Agribusinesses and Rural Transformations SMART Team in ESA supports member country governments in their efforts to develop and implement sound agricultural, agro-industrial and value chain strategies to fight poverty, hunger and malnutrition, while boosting the competitiveness and efficiency of the agricultural and food sectors in an economically, socially and environmentally sustainable way. The International Commodity Specialist reports to the Fish4ACP Chief Technical Advisor and will work in one or more country-value chain teams led by an international value chain analysis team leader.
Fishery commodities classification
Fish farming was promoted to contribute to meeting the rising demand for food. But it has brought its own problems. It has increased the competition for marine space in some cases by displacing local fisher people , contributed to aquatic pollution , and added to the over-exploitation of wild fish stocks which are needed to make the feed used by fish farms. This in turn has worsened social and economic inequality and threatened the quality of and access to marine areas and resources through ongoing expansion in different regions.
"Ричарду такая каталка понравилась бы, - подумала. - Он наверняка захотел бы разобрать ее на Николь обогнала группу людей, разминавшихся по утру.