After several years of oversupply, the oil and gas industry could very well be moving headlong into a supply crunch. This may seem hard to imagine, given the ramping up of U. In general, the industry feels much healthier than it did 12 months ago: The price of oil has rebounded. The industry is thus recovering from the brutal last few years of weak prices, enforced capital discipline, portfolio realignments, and productivity efficiencies.
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Oil and Gas Companies in IndiaVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Petroleum refining processes explained simply
Gas production reached Of the foregoing production, Shale gas reserves are estimated at Tcf. The biggest customers include Japan, South Korea, and China.
During that same period, 7. According to the BP Report, there were 3. Oil production reaches , barrels of oil per day. This marks a 3. Most oil upstream activities are focused in western Indonesia, with the main areas for oil production being Sumatra, the Java Sea, East Kalimantan, and Natuna.
The Government has been encouraging exploration activities in eastern parts of Indonesia, where, according to the PwC Guide, 39 tertiary and pre-tertiary basins show rich promise in hydrocarbons. In the downstream sector, there are nine oil refineries in the country with a combined installed capacity of 1. The State retains mineral rights throughout Indonesian territory and the Government holds the mining authority.
The oil and gas sector comprises upstream and downstream activities, which are separately regulated and organised. Upstream activities include exploration and exploitation and are regulated under Government Regulation No. The upstream sector is managed and supervised by SKK Migas.
Due to the unique territorial composition of the archipelagic state of Indonesia, upstream oil activities may be undertaken in onshore and offshore areas. Work areas for onshore and offshore operations are determined by the MEMR based on consultations with and recommendations from the respective regional governments. Downstream activities encompass processing, transportation, storage, and trading, and are regulated under Government Regulation No.
Through Government Regulation No. The President of Indonesia, Mr. Joko Widodo, announced a list of national strategic projects through Presidential Regulation No.
A presidential decree and presidential instruction seek to accelerate these projects and mandate enhanced cooperation among relevant Government institutions for the achievement of these objectives.
Private companies earn the right to explore and exploit oil and gas resources by entering into cooperation contracts, mainly based upon a production sharing scheme, with the Government through SKK Migas thus acting as a Contractor to SKK Migas.
An entity can hold only one PSC, and a PSC is normally granted for 30 years, typically comprising six plus four years of exploration and 20 years of exploitation. All financial risks of operations under the PSC are borne by the Contractor. If a work area proceeds to the exploitation stage, the Contractor is entitled to cost recovery.
Extracted oil and gas remains owned by the State until it passes the point of export or other delivery point. Thereafter, the Government is entitled to a certain percentage of the production output as apportioned under the PSC, as is the Contractor. The BUMD may accept or decline the offer based on its financial capability, and in the latter event the offer must be tendered to an SOE.
If both Pertamina and the initial Contractor express a willingness to operate a work area, the MEMR has the authority to decide whether the operation will be resumed by Pertamina, the initial Contractor, or jointly between the two. FTP is the first take of oil or gas immediately after production in a work area in one calendar year that is received by the State prior to cost recovery and profit calculation.
The PSC may stipulate whether the tax laws and regulations applicable at the time of the PSC execution shall apply stabilised or whether the PSC shall follow every tax law and regulation issued over time. In addition, Contractors are required to pay non-tax State revenues such as exploration and exploitation fees and bonuses, including signing bonus and production bonus.
The sharing proportion between the Government and the Contractor for a Cost Recovery PSC is typically for oil and for gas, respectively. For a Gross Split PSC, the initial sharing proportion between the Government and the Contractor is for oil and for gas, respectively.
The Indonesian branch offices of overseas banks do not qualify as Indonesian foreign exchange banks. The placement of the export proceeds in a special account must be carried out no later than the end of the third month after the Registration of Export Declaration Pemberitahuan Ekspor Barang. In addition, the direct and indirect transfer of PI as well as change of control is subject to taxes imposed by Government Regulation No.
A Contractor must provide a performance bond by the time of execution of the PSC, the amount of which depends on the type of the contract area. PI cannot be pledged as security. This is primarily because a PI transfer can only be conducted with the approval of the Government, and there is no guarantee that the Government will approve the transfer of PI to the pledgee if execution comes. In conducting petroleum activities, PSC Contractors are required to comply with the provisions of occupational health and safety, environmental management, and community development regulations.
If the facilities and techniques satisfy work health and safety standards, the DGOG shall issue certifications for installations and equipment. Non-compliance with applicable HSE rules subjects the company to administrative sanctions up to revocation of the licence.
The Oil and Gas Law highlights post-operation obligations as a means of ensuring environmental management and protection, and GR 35 obligates Contractors to allocate funds for post-operation activities. MEMR Reg. This regulation requires PSC Contractors to conduct post-operation activities by using post-operation activity funds. Prior to implementing post-operation activities, PSC Contractors are also required to obtain an approval of the post-operation activity plan from the DGOG.
A PTK in on Work Completion Approval also lists well-plugging as one of the items constituting completion of drilling work. Gas storage is generally regulated under GR 36 as a downstream activity. A company engaging in the gas storage business is obligated to offer facility sharing to a third party by considering the technical and economic aspects. If so, what are their key features? The general provisions on the exploration and production of unconventional oil and gas resources are subject to the Oil and Gas Law and its implementing regulations.
There are two specific regulations on unconventional oil and gas resources. Cross-border deliveries of natural gas are subject to import or export approvals from the MOT, which takes into account the import or export recommendation from the DGOG.
The DGOG considers domestic supply and demand in issuing such recommendation. Although the import of natural gas is not specifically subject to an NIB pursuant to GR 24, in practice entities importing natural gas are required to obtain an NIB. Cross-border sales of oil are subject to fulfilment of the DMO for upstream players. From the negotiation process, Pertamina may directly appoint a PSC Contractor for the purchase of the crude oil, which may be made in the form of a long-term contract with a period of 12 months.
However, it is not yet clear exactly how this regulation will be implemented in practice. As discussed in question 4. It can only be carried out by a business entity established in Indonesia that has obtained a transportation licence from the BKPM c. This master plan is relied upon by BPH Migas to, inter alia , determine transmission routes and distribution networks, tender Special Rights, and determine tariffs in accordance with techno-economic principles.
In addition to a gas transportation licence from the BKPM c. DGOG, a business entity must also obtain Special Rights from the MEMR to transport gas by pipeline within the stipulated transmission and distribution routes by way of tender. Do Government authorities have any powers of compulsory acquisition to facilitate land access? Generally speaking, land rights will be obtained by negotiating with owners and occupiers, in accordance with prevailing laws. To the extent these facilities are used for upstream activities within the framework of a cooperation contract, the Contractor will have to comply with the Oil and Gas Law, GR 35 and the relevant implementing regulations to be issued thereunder.
Contractors are responsible for the payment of these rights. Land that is purchased for a facility will become the property of the State, while land that is leased for a facility will be leased in the name of the Contractor.
Title to land purchased for facilities used for downstream activities outside of a cooperation contract may be held in the name of the business entity engaging in the transportation or storage activity.
Projects that serve the public interest may enjoy more Government involvement in the land procurement process, as stipulated in Presidential Regulation No. The President has also issued a regulation and an instruction to enhance cooperation among governmental entities in smoothing the preparation and operation of nationally strategic projects.
Access to oil and natural gas transportation pipelines and associated infrastructure is organised by BPH Migas by relying on the transportation master plan stipulated by the MEMR. The MEMR periodically stipulates a transportation master plan for natural gas that is relied upon by BPH Migas in controlling and supervising the implementation of gas transportation activities by business entities, including determining the joint use of transportation and storage facilities as well as associated infrastructure.
If so, how are the costs including costs of interconnection, capacity reservation or facility expansions allocated? A pipeline or storage facility operator cannot be required to expand its facilities to accommodate new customers.
Facility sharing is obligated by GR 36 only to the extent the relevant facility has sufficient capacity so that the facility sharing will not impair the operations of the facility owner.
BPH Migas is the authority that oversees and regulates facility sharing. BPH Migas has the authority to determine and supervise the tariffs for natural gas transportation through pipelines that will be charged by the operator of the pipeline to users.
The relevant operator must submit the proposed tariff to BPH Migas, which will then verify and evaluate the proposed tariff. BPH Migas will discuss with the related pipeline operator and users before determining the tariff. For the transportation of natural gas, the applicable regulation provides that the agreement between a gas pipeline operator and user must be set forth in a gas transportation agreement.
The regulation also requires the operator of the gas pipeline to prepare an access arrangement outlining the terms and conditions for the joint use of the pipelines owned by the operator. This, as well as the tariff, must be approved by BPH Migas. The access arrangement will include management guidelines and technical and legal rules.
The gas transportation agreement must be in accordance with the access arrangement. Under Government Regulation No. Direct acquisitions of an interest in a gas utility or the transfer of assets forming part of the distribution network will require the revocation of the existing Special Right and issuance of a new Special Right to the acquirer. Indirect acquisitions or transfers of assets by way of share transfers may be subject to foreign share ownership restrictions regulated under the Negative Investment List see question Please include details of current major initiatives or policies of the Government or regulator if any relating to natural gas trading.
Natural gas trading is governed under GR It must be conducted by a business entity established in Indonesia by obtaining a trading business licence from the BKPM c. The trading business licence is further categorised into wholesale trading and limited trading, depending on the scale of business and ownership of facilities. Such activity does not require a trading business licence.
Natural gas trading must adhere to the provisions of priority businesses as well as the price stipulation under MEMR Reg. This will depend on how BPH Migas regulates distribution and trading activities and whether the Government will issue multiple trading and distribution licences for a given area. Bundling of several products is possible since one entity may hold both a distribution and a trading licence. LNG facilities may be operated by upstream players as an ancillary activity to their main activities under the PSC, or by a downstream business entity that engages in processing or trading activities.
Machinery manufacturing is one of the largest and most competitive sectors of the U. Leading markets for U. Taken as a whole, the European Union was the U. Among the wide range of machinery manufactured in the United States, construction machinery, engine equipment, industrial process controls, agricultural equipment, and turbines and turbine generator sets led U. Major competitors in global machinery markets include China, Germany, Japan, and Italy. The economic impact of machinery manufacturing extends throughout the U.
The history of the oil and gas industry from 347 AD to today
Oil & Gas Testing Information
Testing is essential for high-quality oil and gas production during upstream, midstream, and downstream oil and gas processes. Testing for composition, purity, and contaminants are required for seamless production, trading, and distribution. The diverse analysis of contaminants ensures the performance of catalysts, prevents equipment corrosion, and assures high quality and purity of the oil and gas used in a variety of industries. Petrochemical analysis can be challenging due to its difficult matrices, wide range of contaminants, and sensitivity requirements. Here we discuss the analytical tools and technologies that allow accurate and precise analysis of different analytes so that product quality during all the necessary steps of production is under proper control. We include examples for how instruments are used in oil and gas testing and analysis according to different analysis methods, such as ASTM and GPA methods.
Gas production reached Of the foregoing production, Shale gas reserves are estimated at Tcf. The biggest customers include Japan, South Korea, and China. During that same period, 7. According to the BP Report, there were 3. Oil production reaches , barrels of oil per day. This marks a 3.
Machinery and Equipment Spotlight
The upstream part of the oil and gas business is comprised of production facilities. These facilities are where hydrocarbons are first recovered in the process. Pall filtration and separation solutions increase oil recovery rates, help maximize output and efficiently dispose of produced water.
Oil & Gas Testing Information
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Upstream Oil and Gas Equipment - Markets Report
Reliance Industries Limited is engaged in refining, including manufacturing of refined petroleum products, and petrochemicals, including manufacturing of basic chemicals, fertilizers and nitrogen compounds, plastic and synthetic rubber in primary forms. Maharatna ONGC is the largest crude oil and natural gas company in India, contributing around 70 per cent to Indian domestic production. The company ranks 11th among global energy majors Platts. The company also ranks 18th Husk Power System uses novel biomass gratification technology to convert abundant rice husk into combustible gases.
The oil and gas organization of the future
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