Although people tend to accept that fruits and vegetables are healthful options, other food groups, such as dairy, spark more discussion and seem to have conflicting recommendations. Children should consume around 2 or 2. For decades, the USDA have advised people to consume milk every day. However, some health advocates believe that people do not need to eat dairy to be healthy. Others believe that dairy may even be bad for health if people consume too much of it.
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- Get More from Your Milk: Increasing Profit through Value-Added Products
- International efforts are helping Myanmar build its dairy industry from scratch
- Dairy product
- Dairy products: is the international market’s compass biased?
- Is dairy good or bad for your health?
- PASTEURIZED MILK PRODUCTS
- PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF MILK
- Acts, Regulations, Codes and Standards
Get More from Your Milk: Increasing Profit through Value-Added ProductsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: 3D Milk Plant Animation - Dairy Milk Processing Manufacture Movie
A dairy is a business enterprise established for the harvesting or processing or both of animal milk — mostly from cows or buffaloes , but also from goats , sheep , horses , or camels — for human consumption. A dairy is typically located on a dedicated dairy farm or in a section of a multi-purpose farm mixed farm that is concerned with the harvesting of milk.
Terminology differs between countries. For example, in the United States , an entire dairy farm is commonly called a "dairy". The building or farm area where milk is harvested from the cow is often called a "milking parlor" or "parlor".
Except in the case of smaller dairies, where cows are often put on pasture, and usually milked in "stanchion barns". The farm area where milk is stored in bulk tanks is known as the farm's "milk house".
In New Zealand , farm areas for milk harvesting are also called "milking parlours", and are historically known as "milking sheds". Parlour design has evolved from simple barns or sheds to large rotary structures in which the workflow throughput of cows is very efficiently handled.
In some countries, especially those with small numbers of animals being milked, the farm may perform the functions of a dairy plant, processing their own milk into salable dairy products , such as butter , cheese , or yogurt. This on-site processing is a traditional method of producing specialist milk products, common in Europe. In the United States a dairy can also be a place that processes, distributes and sells dairy products , or a room, building or establishment where milk is stored and processed into milk products, such as butter or cheese.
In New Zealand English the singular use of the word dairy almost exclusively refers to a corner shop , or superette. This usage is historical as such shops were a common place for the public to buy milk products. As an attributive, the word dairy refers to milk-based products, derivatives and processes, and the animals and workers involved in their production: for example dairy cattle , dairy goat. A dairy farm produces milk and a dairy factory processes it into a variety of dairy products.
These establishments constitute the global dairy industry , a component of the food industry. Milk producing animals have been domesticated for thousands of years. Initially, they were part of the subsistence farming that nomads engaged in. As the community moved about the country, their animals accompanied them.
Protecting and feeding the animals were a big part of the symbiotic relationship between the animals and the herders. In the more recent past, people in agricultural societies owned dairy animals that they milked for domestic and local village consumption, a typical example of a cottage industry.
The animals might serve multiple purposes for example, as a draught animal for pulling a plow as a youngster, and at the end of its useful life as meat. In this case, the animals were normally milked by hand and the herd size was quite small, so that all of the animals could be milked in less than an hour—about 10 per milker.
These tasks were performed by a dairymaid dairywoman or dairyman. With industrialization and urbanization , the supply of milk became a commercial industry, with specialized breeds of cattle being developed for dairy, as distinct from beef or draught animals.
Initially, more people were employed as milkers, but it soon turned to mechanization with machines designed to do the milking. Historically, the milking and the processing took place close together in space and time: on a dairy farm. People milked the animals by hand; on farms where only small numbers are kept, hand-milking may still be practiced. Hand-milking is accomplished by grasping the teats often pronounced tit or tits in the hand and expressing milk either by squeezing the fingers progressively, from the udder end to the tip, or by squeezing the teat between thumb and index finger, then moving the hand downward from udder towards the end of the teat.
The action of the hand or fingers is designed to close off the milk duct at the udder upper end and, by the movement of the fingers, close the duct progressively to the tip to express the trapped milk. Each half or quarter of the udder is emptied one milk-duct capacity at a time. The stripping action is repeated, using both hands for speed. Both methods result in the milk that was trapped in the milk duct being squirted out the end into a bucket that is supported between the knees or rests on the ground of the milker, who usually sits on a low stool.
Traditionally the cow, or cows, would stand in the field or paddock while being milked. Young stock, heifers , would have to be trained to remain still to be milked. In many countries, the cows were tethered to a post and milked. While most countries produce their own milk products, the structure of the dairy industry varies in different parts of the world.
In major milk-producing countries most milk is distributed through whole sale markets. In Ireland and Australia, for example, farmers' co-operatives own many of the large-scale processors, while in the United States many farmers and processors do business through individual contracts. This was down from 2, cooperatives in the s. Notable developments include considerable foreign investment in the dairy industry and a growing role for dairy cooperatives.
Output of milk is growing rapidly in such countries and presents a major source of income growth for many farmers. As in many other branches of the food industry, dairy processing in the major dairy producing countries has become increasingly concentrated, with fewer but larger and more efficient plants operated by fewer workers. In , charges of antitrust violations have been made against major dairy industry players in the United States, which critics call Big Milk.
Government intervention in milk markets was common in the 20th century. A limited antitrust exemption was created for U. In the s, some U. Plants producing liquid milk and products with short shelf life, such as yogurts, creams and soft cheeses, tend to be located on the outskirts of urban centres close to consumer markets.
Plants manufacturing items with longer shelf life, such as butter, milk powders, cheese and whey powders, tend to be situated in rural areas closer to the milk supply. Most large processing plants tend to specialise in a limited range of products. Exceptionally, however, large plants producing a wide range of products are still common in Eastern Europe, a holdover from the former centralized, supply-driven concept of the market under Communist governments.
As processing plants grow fewer and larger, they tend to acquire bigger, more automated and more efficient equipment. While this technological tendency keeps manufacturing costs lower, the need for long-distance transportation often increases the environmental impact. Milk production is irregular, depending on cow biology. Producers must adjust the mix of milk which is sold in liquid form vs.
When it became necessary to milk larger cows, the cows would be brought to a shed or barn that was set up with stalls milking stalls where the cows could be confined their whole life while they were milked.
One person could milk more cows this way, as many as 20 for a skilled worker. But having cows standing about in the yard and shed waiting to be milked is not good for the cow, as she needs as much time in the paddock grazing as is possible. It is usual to restrict the twice-daily milking to a maximum of an hour and a half each time. It makes no difference whether one milks 10 or cows, the milking time should not exceed a total of about three hours each day for any cow as they should be in stalls and laying down as long as possible to increase comfort which will in turn aid in milk production.
A cow is physically milked for only about 10 minutes a day depending on her milk letdown time and the number of milkings per day. As herd sizes increased there was more need to have efficient milking machines, sheds, milk-storage facilities vats , bulk-milk transport and shed cleaning capabilities and the means of getting cows from paddock to shed and back. As herd numbers increased so did the problems of animal health. In New Zealand two approaches to this problem have been used.
The first was improved veterinary medicines and the government regulation of the medicines that the farmer could use. The other was the creation of veterinary clubs where groups of farmers would employ a veterinarian vet full-time and share those services throughout the year. It was in the vet's interest to keep the animals healthy and reduce the number of calls from farmers, rather than to ensure that the farmer needed to call for service and pay regularly.
This daily milking routine goes on for about to days per year that the cow stays in milk. Some small herds are milked once a day for about the last 20 days of the production cycle but this is not usual for large herds.
If a cow is left unmilked just once she is likely to reduce milk-production almost immediately and the rest of the season may see her dried off giving no milk and still consuming feed. However, once-a-day milking is now being practised more widely in New Zealand for profit and lifestyle reasons. This is effective because the fall in milk yield is at least partially offset by labour and cost savings from milking once per day. This compares to some intensive farm systems in the United States that milk three or more times per day due to higher milk yields per cow and lower marginal labor costs.
Farmers who are contracted to supply liquid milk for human consumption as opposed to milk for processing into butter , cheese , and so on—see milk often have to manage their herd so that the contracted number of cows are in milk the year round, or the required minimum milk output is maintained.
This is done by mating cows outside their natural mating time so that the period when each cow in the herd is giving maximum production is in rotation throughout the year. Northern hemisphere farmers who keep cows in barns almost all the year usually manage their herds to give continuous production of milk so that they get paid all year round. In the southern hemisphere the cooperative dairying systems allow for two months on no productivity because their systems are designed to take advantage of maximum grass and milk production in the spring and because the milk processing plants pay bonuses in the dry winter season to carry the farmers through the mid-winter break from milking.
It also means that cows have a rest from milk production when they are most heavily pregnant. Some year-round milk farms are penalised financially for overproduction at any time in the year by being unable to sell their overproduction at current prices. Artificial insemination AI is common in all high-production herds in order to improve the genetics of the female offspring which will be raised for replacements. AI also reduces the need for keeping potentially dangerous bulls on the farm.
Male calves are sold to be raised for beef or veal. A cow will calve or freshen about once a year, until she is culled because of declining production, infertility or other health problems. Then the cow will be sold, most often going to slaughter. Dairy plants process the raw milk they receive from farmers so as to extend its marketable life. Two main types of processes are employed: heat treatment to ensure the safety of milk for human consumption and to lengthen its shelf-life, and dehydrating dairy products such as butter, hard cheese and milk powders so that they can be stored.
Today, milk is separated by huge machines in bulk into cream and skim milk. The cream is processed to produce various consumer products, depending on its thickness, its suitability for culinary uses and consumer demand, which differs from place to place and country to country. Some milk is dried and powdered, some is condensed by evaporation mixed with varying amounts of sugar and canned.
Most cream from New Zealand and Australian factories is made into butter. This is done by churning the cream until the fat globules coagulate and form a monolithic mass. This butter mass is washed and, sometimes, salted to improve keeping qualities. The residual buttermilk goes on to further processing.
At a later stage these packages are broken down into home-consumption sized packs. The product left after the cream is removed is called skim, or skimmed, milk. To make a consumable liquid a portion of cream is returned to the skim milk to make low fat milk semi-skimmed for human consumption. By varying the amount of cream returned, producers can make a variety of low-fat milks to suit their local market.
Whole milk is also made by adding cream back to the skim to form a standardized product.
The production of milk and dairy products in Qatar in was 58, tons. Rapid westernization and rising health awareness driving the market for dairy products. Population growth, altering consumption patterns, continual modernization of the food value chain, and the booming tourism industry are some of the key drivers that are aiding the growth of the dairy industry. These factors are creating a market for international and organic foods that also have a positive effect on the growth of the dairy industry. Increasing focus on reducing the dependence on dairy imports, thereby encouraging higher domestic production. Historically, Qatar has been quite dependent on the imports of foodstuffs to meet the local demand.
International efforts are helping Myanmar build its dairy industry from scratch
INDEX The renewal of the brand and new packaging with a minimalist design has played an important role in this. The key objective of the event in is to support Russian agricultural exports, reports The DairyNews. Losses in the dairy sector alone could amount to more than 3.
Dairy product , milk and any of the foods made from milk, including butter , cheese , ice cream , yogurt , and condensed and dried milk. Milk has been used by humans since the beginning of recorded time to provide both fresh and storable nutritious foods. In some countries almost half the milk produced is consumed as fresh pasteurized whole, low-fat, or skim milk. However, most milk is manufactured into more stable dairy products of worldwide commerce, such as butter, cheese, dried milks, ice cream, and condensed milk. Cow milk bovine species is by far the principal type used throughout the world. Other animals utilized for their milk production include buffalo in India, China, Egypt, and the Philippines , goats in the Mediterranean countries , reindeer in northern Europe , and sheep in southern Europe. This section focuses on the processing of cow milk and milk products unless otherwise noted.
Dairy products: is the international market’s compass biased?
Dairy consumption is increasing globally, and this presents an opportunity for farmers in developing countries. Small-scale dairy farmers need to produce high-quality dairy if they are to realize their full potential in this growing, formalized market. Dairy consumption continues to increase, particularly in non-Western countries. This inevitably means that dairy production needs to increase.
Dairy factory design The detailed design of a Dairy Factory is critical to its efficiency ease of operation and profitability. Design the fine detail into the master drawings to save time and money later and bring the project in on time and on budget "DAIRY Factories of the Future" Putting people first is the key. Deasign for ease of operation, think of it like your kitchen at home where you cater for a large family, put everything where it should be within easy reach and easy to maintain. The factory should be designed to take account of potential future expansion and to optimise the space available. The growth in supermarket private labels and big brand contract manufacture and packing means that the manufacturers have to provide state of the art new product development services. This means that factories and processes need to be modular and flexible plugand play with rapid changeover to different products, plavours, packs izes, pack formats etc. Just in time production with shorter production runs allowing retailers to minimise their stock holding and reduce the time that product remains on the shelves less inventory Factories need to be user friendly with an emphasis on higer paid operators running very efficient and highly automated plants. Operator satisfaction is a key consideration in the design of a new dairy plant, designing a pleasant, safe and efficient work environment. A cultured products dairy plant would ideally be segregated from a pasteurised products dairy plant due to the potential for cross contamination which concentrated live cultures on clothing, hands and footwear as well as in the atmosphere of the plant. The dairy industry's hygiene requirements and zoning of plants requires that internal surfaces and ledges are designed to be easily cleanable, easily maintained and hygienic in design.
Is dairy good or bad for your health?
Milk is a complex food that contains vital nutrients for the bodies of young mammals. Milk is the only food of the mammal during the first period of its life and the substances in milk provide energy and antibodies that help protect against infection. The techniques used in the production of milk using cows, goats, sheep and buffaloes began around six thousand years ago. The same species of animals are kept for milking today. The animals used for milk production are ruminants that eat quickly, in great quantities, and later digest their food. Today, the most widespread milking animal in the world is the cow. The cow can be found on all continents around the world. Other animals commonly used in both subsistence and industrial dairy farming are goats, sheep and buffaloes.
PASTEURIZED MILK PRODUCTS
Milk is produced across the globe from only a limited number of animal species. For humans, the substances in milk provide both energy, building materials for growth and contain antibodies that protect against infection. Major categories of milk products include liquid milk, desserts, cream, fats and spreads, ice cream, natural and processed cheese, and yogurt. The composition of milk varies according to a range of factors, including species, stage or lactation and diet. The 3 largest producers were Russia about 30 million tons ,Turkey about 17 million tons , Poland about 12 million tons. The regional sum of goat milk was around 1 million tons with the largest producers of Turkey, Ukraine, and Russia While the regional sum of sheep milk was around 2 million tons with the largest producers of Turkey, Romania, and Bulgaria
PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF MILK
Milk production costs differ from country to country, from one producer area to the next, and among production economies. Determining production costs is therefore a delicate matter and should be done on a case-by-case basis.
Acts, Regulations, Codes and Standards
The unit should be located as centrally as possible within a given milk-producing area, near a source of water, or in a place where water is available. The site should be cool and well-ventilated.
A dairy is a business enterprise established for the harvesting or processing or both of animal milk — mostly from cows or buffaloes , but also from goats , sheep , horses , or camels — for human consumption. A dairy is typically located on a dedicated dairy farm or in a section of a multi-purpose farm mixed farm that is concerned with the harvesting of milk. Terminology differs between countries.
The Vermont Encyclopedia. John J. Duffy , Samuel B. Hand , Ralph H.