Filler materials are particles added to resin or binders plastics , composites , concrete that can improve specific properties, make the product cheaper, or a mixture of both. The two largest segments for filler material use is elastomers and plastics. As such, fillers, produced by more than companies, rank among the world's major raw materials and are contained in a variety of goods for daily consumer needs. The top filler materials used are ground calcium carbonate GCC , precipitated calcium carbonate PCC , kaolin, talc, and carbon black. A good example of this is the addition of talc to polypropylene. Particulates are small particles of filler which are mixed in the matrix where size and aspect ratio are important.
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- Products & Manufacturing
- Civil Engineering
- Optimizing Composition of Gypsum Mixture for Preparation and Testing of Partition Blocks
- Filler (materials)
- Phosphate bonded natural fibre composites: a state of the art assessment
- Bamboo Based Biocomposites Material, Design and Applications
- ECOSE Technology – 10 years of the feel-good factor!
- Bradford Black wall batts - R2.5 - 420 x 1160 (90mm thick - 3.9m2/pack)
- Cork Composites: A Review
Products & ManufacturingVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Manufacturer And Trader Of A Wide Range Of Plastic Raw Materials
SN Applied Sciences. August , Cite as. Over the last few decades, innovative wood composite products and processes have created markets for new and existing products. Inorganic bonded fibre composites have been developed for high performance applications using conventional cement and concrete. The demands for wood based composites along with increasing economic and environmental concerns on conventional wood products necessitate moving beyond the traditional processing methods to more cost-effective and environmentally friendly approaches.
In the wake of the twenty-first century, a fast-setting phosphate binder with a low carbon footprint was developed, which can alternatively be utilized in wood composite development. This paper reviews the recent progress in phosphate bonded composite products, based on published literature from the last two decades.
A brief background on Portland cement based natural fibre composites is presented. In addition, the mechanism of the formulation of phosphate binders, the effect of aggregates in the materials and the environmental benefits accruable to such materials are discussed.
The improvements and innovations in both raw materials and processing standards have opened new channels for the development of value-added natural fibre composite products with improved properties and aesthetic appeal. Despite the innovations in products and design, the global wood composite products market has been steady over time. Traditionally, the term wood composite is used to describe any wood-based material that is bonded with an adhesive, although binderless particleboards have also been developed [ 1 , 2 ].
Wood-based composites can be classified into veneer-based materials, such as plywood and laminated veneer, laminates, composites, such as fibreboard, particleboard, flake board, wafer board, oriented strand board and components, such as beams and stress skin panels and wood-non wood composites, such as wood plastics and inorganic bonded composites [ 1 , 2 , 3 ].
Wood and fibre based composites have been extensively developed, and novel green polymer biocomposites is increasingly becoming popular [ 4 , 5 ]. The scope of this review is on a new kind of inorganic composites. Inorganic bonded fibre composites consists of a discontinuous phase or reinforcing agent bonded with a continuous phase or matrix binder [ 6 ]. Improved properties of inorganic bonded composites are obtained when the fibres are completely encased and the matrix is a continuous phase.
Basically, the properties of inorganic bonded fibre composites are significantly influenced by the amount and type of the inorganic binder, the fibre element, as well as the target density of the composites [ 2 ]. The traditional inorganic bonded composites include gypsum bonded composites, Portland cement bonded composites and magnesia cement bonded composites [ 3 ].
A new class of inorganic bonded composites has been developed, which consists of a non-sintered ceramic inorganic binder formed by an acid—base aqueous reaction between a divalent or trivalent oxide and an acid phosphate or phosphoric acid [ 7 ].
The reaction slurry hardens quickly and can be used as inorganic binder to manufacture fibre composites that can be referred to as phosphate bonded composites. Phosphate bonded wood and fibre composites show a high potential to compete with cement bonded composites and meet the minimum requirements for cement bonded composites [ 8 ]. Magnesia and Portland cement composites are the most common cement bonded composites. However, gypsum and magnesia cement are sensitive to moisture and their use is restricted to interior applications.
Detailed descriptions of magnesia cement and gypsum bonded composites can be found in Youngquist [ 1 ] and Stark et al. On the other hand, Portland cement bonded composites are more durable and are used in both interior and exterior applications.
This review focuses on the development of phosphate bonded composites that are durable and can be applied in both interior and exterior applications, like that of cement composites. A brief background on existing Portland cement bonded composites is presented in the next section. Portland cement is the most widely used material in wood-cement composites. Commercially available Portland cement composites consist of low density panels made with excelsior and high density panels made with particles or fibres [ 2 ].
Low density panels are generally used for interior applications [ 9 ], while high density panels are used as floorings, load bearing walls and cement forms [ 1 ].
The most developed high density panels are those made with de-lignified wood fibres. Fibre cement composites have been manufactured for high performance applications [ 10 , 11 ] and improved acoustic insulation [ 12 ]. In housing construction, fibre cement composite products are used for non-structural components, including siding and roofing materials [ 13 ]. They offer good dimensional stability, high decay and fire resistance properties and impart additional energy absorbing capacity to the composite material [ 14 ].
As a result, fibre cement composites show improved ductility, flexibility and crack resistance when compared to neat cement concrete [ 13 ]. The addition of fibres to Portland cement improves the fracture toughness of the composite by blocking crack propagation. This delayed multiple cracking reduces deformation at all stress levels and impacts a well-defined post-yield behaviour of the composite material [ 15 ].
The use of cement in wood composites is faced with many limitations. A major drawback is the vulnerability of natural fibres to decompose in the alkaline environment of cement. In addition, sugars, hemicelluloses and lignin present in wood affect the hydration characteristics of the cement matrix [ 16 ]. Impermeable hydrates are formed around un-hydrated cement grains, which delay the setting of the cement [ 17 ] and affect the ultimate strength of the composites [ 2 ].
These limitations have been addressed by several techniques, for example, hot water extraction and leaching in cold water have been effective in removing the detrimental components [ 18 , 19 ] and chemical extractions have also shown positive effects [ 17 , 20 , 21 ]. The use of cement curing accelerators like CaCl 2 , MgCl 2 and CaCO 3 has been helpful in eliminating the need to pre-soak the wood particles [ 1 , 22 , 23 ]. Other methods that have been used to improve compatibility between wood and cement are fungal treatment of wood [ 24 ]; application of blocking layers around wood particles [ 25 ]; CO 2 treatment [ 26 , 27 ]; and the addition of pozzolans, such as volcanic ash, fly ash, rice husk ash and condensed silica fume [ 18 , 28 ].
The total amount of water available for bonding also affects the hydration of the cement paste, as too little or too much water in the paste affects the ultimate strength of the composites [ 17 ]. Fast setting cement options are promising alternatives, as this reduces the time for wood extractives to dissolve in the cement slurry [ 17 ].
In this regard, the phosphate binder seems to be the best choice. As stated above, phosphate cement is a fast setting binder formulated from an aqueous reaction between an acid phosphate and an alkali oxide or hydroxide.
The alkali suitable for this kind of reaction is usually an oxide or carbonate of divalent or transition metals, while the acidic phosphate is usually a salt of phosphoric acid or a metallic phosphate [ 29 , 30 ].
However, MgO has been found to be more effective, because it has moderate solubility in acid phosphate medium, when compared with CaO and Fe 2 O 3 [ 30 ]. Depending on the choice of components and the processing conditions, the reaction between the acid and the alkali can be highly exothermic and the resulting viscous fluid can bond to any earth metal [ 31 ]. The fluid is thixotropic i. Details of the formulation processes carried out in this study are discussed in the next section.
Full details on the thermodynamics and stoichiometry of the acid—base reactions can be found in Wagh [ 30 , 32 ]. CBPC is a potential inorganic binder for developing wood composite products. It can also be used to develop other value-added products by recycling high volume industrial waste, such as wastepaper and pulp mill residues [ 33 ]. Phosphate binder may be used in several ways, either as adhesive, cement or surface material to manufacture wood and fibre based composites.
An interesting advantage with the use of this binder is that it is not affected by the sugars and hemicelluloses in wood, thus providing a wider stream of utilization of wood species [ 33 ]. Phosphates are naturally occurring rocks or ores containing phosphate ions and largely deposited in the United States, Russia Western Sahara, and Morocco [ 30 , 34 ]. Phosphates consist of minerals of calcium and aluminium phosphates mined to obtain phosphorus for agricultural and industrial use.
A significant advantage of phosphate mining is the low level energy consumption owing to the surface mining of phosphate rocks and the low temperature extraction of the Ortho-phosphoric acid H 3 PO 4 from the ore [ 30 ]. Phosphate chemicals are used in large scale manufacturing of phosphate fertilizers and food ingredients. It is important to know that since the phosphate fertilizer will be used in product development, debris from disposed products may enrich soil nutrients. A major theoretical problem faced with phosphate is the declining state of supply.
A peak phosphate theory has been proposed, where a catastrophic decline in production of phosphate fertilizer would result in a progressive crash down in human population [ 34 ]. According to Dolan [ 35 ], what is likely is a period of continued rising phosphate prices, which will trigger three reactions: firstly an economical processing of lower grades of phosphate rocks, secondly, change in farm management and development of improved crop varieties and thirdly, incentives for improved recycling of phosphorus from waste streams.
Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics CBPCs are formed by acid—base reactions between an acid phosphate such as that of potassium, ammonium, or aluminium and a metal oxide such as that of magnesium, calcium, or zinc [ 36 ].
Formulation of any given CBPC requires an in-depth understanding of solution chemistry. In this kind of ceramic product, the acid component is an acid phosphate, while the alkaline component is a sparsely soluble oxide or an oxide mineral. When these compounds are mixed in an aqueous solution, the acid phosphate releases phosphate anions upon dissolution, which decreases the pH of the solution. This low pH increases the solubility of the alkaline component, which dissolves slowly in the solvent and releases cations in the acidic solution [ 30 ].
The reaction of the alkaline cation and the phosphate anion results in the precipitation of a crystalline salt, otherwise called a neutral phosphate [ 31 , 37 ]. Dissolution of the acid phosphates in water, releasing phosphate anions and forming an acid-phosphate solution of low pH.
Gradual dissolution of the oxides in the low pH solution releasing cations. This review discusses the formulation of two phosphate based cement binders that can be used in wood and fibre composite production.
These are magnesium phosphate and calcium hydro-phosphate. CBPCs are mainly magnesium and iron-phosphate ceramics, although specialty formulations have been developed for biomaterials applications using calcium-phosphate based ceramics [ 30 , 38 ]. Magnesium oxide is the most common and widely used because of its moderate solubility in an acid-phosphate solution, when compared to calcium and iron oxides.
Reaction between hard burned magnesium oxide and phosphoric acid is highly exothermic, resulting in difficulty of producing magnesium phosphate ceramics on a large scale [ 30 ].
This product is called magnesium potassium phosphate binder. The product has an orthorhombic colourless structure and is known as K-struvite in mineralogical literature [ 31 ]. According to Wagh and Jeong [ 29 ], the reaction products form crystals that can grow into insoluble solids, which form the CBPC. This makes the product highly crystalline when compared to Portland cement.
Magnesium phosphates are applied in stabilization of hazardous and radioactive wastes, structural materials including road repair and architectural products [ 30 , 32 , 36 ].
The phosphate chemistry of calcium is quite complicated because of difficulties in identifying the reaction products using the X-ray diffractometry XRD. Calcium forms a range of phosphate salts and these salts are often difficult to identify [ 32 ]. The K 2 SiO 3 produces a glassy phase that fills the voids between particles of the bulk compound and produces a dense solidified non-porous ceramic product.
It is believed that this alkali metal—glass binds particles together within the product and increases the compression and flexural strength of the ceramic product [ 41 ]. Amiandamhen et al. However, the addition of unslaked lime CaO to the solution initiated the reaction and increased the rate of precipitation. Similarly, Wagh et al. Colorado et al. The authors reported that when the phosphoric acid formulation and the wollastonite powder mixture are stirred, the sparsely alkaline oxide dissolves and an acid—base reaction is initiated.
This hardens into a ceramic product because of gelation by salt formation and the dissociation of the calcium cations from the calcium silicate. The molecules form an ordered structure, which grows into crystals to form CBPC [ 42 ]. Scanning electron micrographs of CBPC aggregates showing a spherical cenospheres of fly ash, b acicular structure of wollastonite.
The presence of fly ash increases the heat capacity of the mixture which lowers the temperature rise of the product during its formation and slows down the setting process [ 31 ]. Generally, the incorporation of fly ash into CBPC has multi-benefit objectives.
Cork is a material which has been used for mankind for the last 5, years and it is a strategic material used for multiple applications, from wine bottles to aeronautics. Many of current cork materials are composites, in particular cork materials for floor and wall coverings and several other building and industrial applications. Recent developments in cork research have shifted from the classical cork-wine relationship to quality and environmental issues, exploitation of cork industry residues and new cork based materials. In recent years a number of new cork based composite materials were developed. Cork is the suberous covering suberose parenchyma, or bark of the species Quercus Suber L.
Fiberglass refers to a group of products made from individual glass fibers combined into a variety of forms. Glass fibers can be divided into two major groups according to their geometry: continuous fibers used in yarns and textiles, and the discontinuous short fibers used as batts, blankets, or boards for insulation and filtration. Fiberglass can be formed into yarn much like wool or cotton, and woven into fabric which is sometimes used for draperies. Fiberglass textiles are commonly used as a reinforcement material for molded and laminated plastics. Fiberglass wool, a thick, fluffy material made from discontinuous fibers, is used for thermal insulation and sound absorption. It is commonly found in ship and submarine bulkheads and hulls; automobile engine compartments and body panel liners; in furnaces and air conditioning units; acoustical wall and ceiling panels; and architectural partitions. Fiberglass can be tailored for specific applications such as Type E electrical , used as electrical insulation tape, textiles and reinforcement; Type C chemical , which has superior acid resistance, and Type T, for thermal insulation.
Optimizing Composition of Gypsum Mixture for Preparation and Testing of Partition Blocks
Drywall also known as plasterboard , wallboard , sheet rock , gypsum board , buster board , custard board , or gypsum panel is a panel made of calcium sulfate dihydrate gypsum , with or without additives, typically extruded between thick sheets of facer and backer paper , used in the construction of interior walls and ceilings. In the midth century, drywall construction became prevalent in North America as a time and labor saving alternative to traditional lath and plaster. The first plasterboard plant in the UK was opened in in Rochester, Kent. It was made by layering plaster within four plies of wool felt paper. Gypsum board evolved between and beginning with wrapped board edges and elimination of the two inner layers of felt paper in favor of paper-based facings.
Siti Suhaily, H. Abdul Khalil, W. Wan Nadirah and M. Materials Science - Advanced Topics. Bamboo or Bambusa in botanical has subfamilies of genres and there are difference species ranging from the type of wood to bamboo herb. However, each particular species of bamboo has different properties and qualities [ 1 ]. Bamboo productions dated back to thousands of years ago and thus they are rich with traditional elements. Bamboo naturally, suitable for varieties of uses and benefits.
Jonathan P. Hellerstein, Joel Bender, John G. Hadley and Charles M. Interestingly, not only do most of these sectors have roots in antiquity, but they also share a number of common general processes.
SN Applied Sciences. August , Cite as. Over the last few decades, innovative wood composite products and processes have created markets for new and existing products. Inorganic bonded fibre composites have been developed for high performance applications using conventional cement and concrete. The demands for wood based composites along with increasing economic and environmental concerns on conventional wood products necessitate moving beyond the traditional processing methods to more cost-effective and environmentally friendly approaches. In the wake of the twenty-first century, a fast-setting phosphate binder with a low carbon footprint was developed, which can alternatively be utilized in wood composite development. This paper reviews the recent progress in phosphate bonded composite products, based on published literature from the last two decades. A brief background on Portland cement based natural fibre composites is presented.
Phosphate bonded natural fibre composites: a state of the art assessment
Regret for the inconvenience: we are taking measures to prevent fraudulent form submissions by extractors and page crawlers. Received: May 19, Published: December 4, MOJ Civil Eng 3 5 : DOI: Download PDF. The project elucidates about the use of plastic in civil construction. The components used include everything from plastic screws and hangers to bigger plastic parts that are used in decoration, electric wiring, flooring, wall covering and waterproofing. Plastic use in road construction that have shown same hope in terms of using plastic waste in road construction. Plastic roads mainly use plastic carry bags, disposable cups and PET bottles that are collected from garbage dumps as important ingredients of the construction materials.
Bamboo Based Biocomposites Material, Design and Applications
View Complete Details. Contact Seller Ask for best deal. Get Latest Price Request a quote. Visharant Wadi, Pune, Maharashtra. Company Video. View Mobile Number. Ask for more details from the seller Contact Seller.
ECOSE Technology – 10 years of the feel-good factor!
Divided into 1, 2 and 3 grades. They are used for glazing vehicles, doors, shop windows, for the device of partitions. Obtained by bonding glass sheets using celluloid, cellulose acetate and other substances. Used in vehicles.
Bradford Black wall batts - R2.5 - 420 x 1160 (90mm thick - 3.9m2/pack)
Note from the publisher: Now in its sixth edition, this bestselling reference focuses on the basic materials and methods used in building construction. Emphasizing common construction systems such as light wood frame, masonry bearing wall, steel frame, and reinforced concrete construction, the new edition includes new information on building materials properties; the latest on "pre-engineered" building components and sustainability issues; and reflects the latest building codes and standards. It also features an expanded series of case studies along with more axonometric detail drawings and revised photographs for a thoroughly illustrated approach.
Cork Composites: A Review
Thin-size 6mm thickness , dense homogenous cement - bonded boards were produced from mixed shredded flakes of banana stem and sawdust of mixed hardwood species. The influences of weight proportion of the two types of ligno-cellulosic materials at five blended levels of , 75, 50, 25 and 0 of sawdust to flakes of banana stem; and cement mixing ratio at two levels of 2. Every board was made at standard chemical additive concentration of 3. Results showed that it was technically impossible to make boards from the pure banana fibres without the incorporation of the sawdust particles.
The present invention relates to a method of reducing formaldehyde emission of a mineral fibre product, and to bonded mineral fibre products having low formaldehyde emission. Mineral fibre products generally comprise man-made vitreous fibres MMVF such as, e.