NIIR Board. The dairy industry plays an important role in our daily life. It is difficult to realize how fast changes are taking place in the dairy industry. Milk is an important human food, it is palatable, easy to digest and highly nutritive. One of the important factors affecting the total amount of milk produced and the way in which this milk is utilized is the demand for the various products. In order to prepare such a diversity of products, many different processes have been developed by the industry.
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Managing Water Scarcity in Food & Beverage ProductionVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Digital Transformation in the Beverage Manufacturing Production Process
The beverage industry consists of two major categories and eight sub-groups. The non-alcoholic category is comprised of soft drink syrup manufacture; soft drink and water bottling and canning; fruit juices bottling, canning and boxing; the coffee industry and the tea industry.
Alcoholic beverage categories include distilled spirits, wine and brewing. Although many of these beverages, including beer, wine and tea, have been around for thousands of years, the industry has developed only over the past few centuries.
The beverage products industry, viewed as an aggregate group, is highly fragmented. This is evident by the number of manufacturers, methods of packaging, production processes and final products. The soft drink industry is the exception to the rule, as it is quite concentrated. Although the beverage industry is fragmented, ongoing consolidation since the s is changing that. This shift began when companies in this manufacturing sector adopted mass production techniques that let them expand.
Also during this time period there were advances in product packaging and processes that greatly increased product shelf life. Air-tight containers for tea prevented absorption of moisture, which is the principle cause of loss of flavour.
In addition, the advent of refrigeration equipment enabled lager beers to be brewed during the summer months. The beverage industry employs several million people worldwide, and each type of beverage grosses billions of dollars in revenue each year.
Indeed, in several small, developing countries, the production of coffee is the major support of the entire economy. Though the ingredients and production of beverages vary, generally the characteristics of those employed in this industry have many commonalties. The process of harvesting raw materials, whether they be coffee beans, barley, hops or grapes, employs low-income, unskilled individuals or families.
In addition to being their main source of income, the harvest determines a large part of their culture and lifestyle. In contrast, the processing of the product involves automated and mechanized operations, usually employing a semi-skilled, blue-collar workforce.
In the production facility and warehouse areas, some of the common jobs include packaging and filling machine operator, fork-lift operator, mechanic and manual labourer. The training for these positions is completed onsite with extensive on-the-job instruction. As technology and automation evolve, the workforce diminishes in number and technical training becomes more important.
The beverage industry for the most part distributes its products to wholesalers using common carriers. However, soft drink manufacturers usually employ drivers to deliver their products directly to individual retailers.
These drivers-salesworkers account for about one-seventh of the workers in the soft drink industry. The more health-conscious atmosphere in Europe and North America in the s has led to a flat market in the alcoholic beverage industry, with demand shifting to non-alcoholic beverages.
Both alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages, however, are expanding considerably in developing nations in Asia, South America and to some extent Africa. Because of this expansion, numerous local jobs are being created to meet production and distribution needs. Fruit juices are made from a wide variety of fruits, including oranges and other citrus fruits, apples, grapes, cranberries, pineapples, mangoes and so forth. In many cases, various fruit juices are blended.
Usually, the fruit is processed into a concentrate near where it is grown, then shipped to a fruit juice packager. Fruit juices can be sold as concentrates, frozen concentrates especially orange juice and as the diluted juice. Often sugar and preservatives are added. Once received at the processing plant, the oranges are washed, graded to remove damaged fruit, separated according to size and sent to the juice extractors.
There the oils are extracted from the peel, and then the juice extracted by crushing. The pulpy juice is screened to remove seeds and pulp, which often end up as cattle feed. Otherwise the juice is sent to evaporators, which remove most of the water by heat and vacuum, then chilled, to produce the frozen, concentrated orange juice.
This process also removes many oils and essences which are blended back into the concentrate before shipping to the juice packager. The frozen concentrate is shipped to the packager in refrigerated trucks or tankers. Many dairies package orange juice using the same equipment used to package milk. The concentrate is diluted with filtered water, pasteurized and packaged under sterile conditions.
Depending on the amount of water added, the final product can be cans of frozen orange juice concentrate or ready-to-serve orange juice. The making of the concentrate is the first step in the production of a carbonated soft drink.
At the beginnings of the industry, in the nineteenth century, both concentrate and soft drink were manufactured in the same facility. Sometimes the concentrate was sold to the consumers, who would make their own soft drinks. As the carbonated soft drink business has grown, the concentrate and the soft drink manufacturing have become specialized.
Today, a concentrate manufacturing plant sells its product to various bottling companies. Concentrate plants are constantly optimizing their operation through systems automation.
As the demand for concentrate increases, automation has allowed the manufacturer to satisfy the demand without expanding the size of the manufacturing plant.
Packaging size has increased too. Today and gallon drums and even tank trucks with capacities of 3, to 4, gallons are used. Operations in a concentrate manufacturing plant can be divided into five basic processes:. Each of these processes has safety hazards that must be evaluated and controlled.
Water is a very important ingredient in the concentrate and it must have excellent quality. Each concentrate plant treats water until it reaches the desired quality and is free from micro-organisms. Water treatment is monitored during all stages. When the plant receives the compounding ingredients, inspection, sampling and analysing of the ingredients in the quality-control department are begun.
Only materials that have passed the tests will be used in the concentrate manufacturing process. Some of the raw materials are received in tank trucks and require special handling. Also, packaging material is received, evaluated and analysed in the same way as the raw materials. The tanks have capacities of 50 gallons, 10, gallons and even more. These tanks are completely clean and sanitized at the time of mixing.
Once the concentrate is manufactured, the filling stage is started. All the products are piped into the filling room. Filling machines are strictly cleaned and sanitized before the filling process starts.
Most of the filling machines are dedicated to specific container sizes. The product is kept inside pipes and tanks at times during the filling process in order to avoid contamination.
Each container should be labelled with the product name and handling hazards if necessary. Full containers are moved by conveyors to the packaging area. Containers are placed on pallets and wrapped in plastic or tied before they are stored.
Besides the concentrates, additives to be used in the preparation of carbonated soft drinks are packed. Many of these additives are packed in plastic bags and placed in boxes. Once at the warehouse, the products are divided and prepared to be sent to the different bottling companies.
These products should be labelled following all government regulations. Hazards in a concentrate manufacturing plant vary depending on the products manufactured and the size of the plant. Concentrate plants have a low injury rate due to a high degree of automation and mechanized handling.
Materials are handled by fork-lifts, and full containers are placed on pallets by automatic palletizers. Although, employees generally do not have to use excessive force to get the job done, lifting related injuries remain a concern. Major hazards include engines and equipment in motion, objects falling from overhead containers, energy hazards in repair and maintenance, confined space hazards in cleaning mixing tanks, noise, fork-lift accidents and hazardous chemical cleaning agents.
In most established markets around the world, soft drinks now rank first among manufactured beverages, surpassing even milk and coffee in terms of per capita consumption.
Including ready-to-drink, packaged products and bulk mixes for fountain dispensing, soft drinks are available in almost every conceivable size and flavour and in virtually every channel of retail distribution. As consumers have become increasingly mobile, they have opted for easier-to-carry packaged goods.
With the advent of the aluminium can and, more recently, the resealable plastic bottle, soft drink packaging has become lighter and more portable.
Stringent quality-control standards and state-of-the-art water treatment processes also have afforded the soft drink industry a high degree of confidence regarding product purity. Moreover, the manufacturing or bottling plants that produce soft drinks have evolved into highly mechanized, efficient and spotlessly clean food-processing facilities. As early as the s, most bottlers were producing beverages through machinery that ran at bottles per minute. As product demand has continued to skyrocket, soft drink manufacturers have shifted to faster machinery.
Thanks to advances in production technology, filling lines now are able to run in excess of 1, containers per minute, with minimal downtime except for product or flavour changes.
This highly automated environment has allowed soft drink manufacturers to reduce the number of employees required to operate the lines see figure Still, as production efficiencies have risen dramatically, plant safety has remained an ever-important consideration.
Soft drink bottling or manufacturing involves five major processes, each with its own safety issues that must be evaluated and controlled:.
Soft drink manufacturing starts with water, which is treated and cleansed to meet exacting quality-control standards, usually exceeding the quality of the local water supply.
This process is critical to achieving high product quality and consistent taste profiles. As ingredients are being compounded, the treated water is piped into large, stainless-steel tanks.
This is the stage at which various ingredients are added and mixed. Diet beverages are mixed with artificial, non-nutritive sweeteners such as aspartame or saccharin, whereas regularly sweetened drinks typically use liquid sugars like fructose or sucrose. It is during this stage of the production process that food colouring may be added.
Flavoured, sparkling waters receive the desired flavouring at this stage, while plain waters are stored in the mixing tanks until the filling line calls for them. It is common for bottling companies to purchase concentrate from other firms.
In order for carbonation absorption of carbon dioxide CO 2 to occur, soft drinks are cooled using large, ammonia-based refrigeration systems.
About two-thirds of the milk used to make Greek yogurt ends up as this by-product. For years, companies have paid farmers to spread the waste on land as fertilizer or feed it to livestock. But when the popularity of Greek yogurt skyrocketed in the U. Some companies now treat their whey in anaerobic digesters, which produce methane for electricity. Others are working to extract valuable food ingredients such as lactose from acid whey.
The orange fruit and its products
The orange plant originated in Southeast Asia and spread gradually to other parts of the world. Today, orange juice products derive from four main groups of orange. About 70 million tonnes of oranges are produced globally per annum. Of this, around one third is processed into juice and the rest consumed as whole fruit. As juice is produced on a seasonal basis, it must be stored between seasons to ensure a year-round supply to consumer markets. Most juice is produced as frozen concentrated orange juice FCOJ because it can be stored for long periods of time and shipped at lower cost as it contains less water. It is often intended for nearby markets, but infrastructure for overseas export of NFC is in place in major markets.
Water is intrinsic for doing business in the food and beverage industry, and in the last decade, increased water need for urban, agriculture and industrial use have come into conflict with surface and groundwater availability. Long periods of drought, drying water basins and aquifer overdraft have impacted water supply, groundwater contamination and increased groundwater pumping costs. The cost of well replacement has forced governments and local water agencies to implement and enforce sustainable water conservation legislation. The challenge of reducing water consumption has moved from the desk of the production manager to the agenda of the board, as its scarce availability and increased restrictions could curtail delivery of services and products.
Waste management is a global problem that continues to increase with rapid industrialization, population growth, and economic development. The fast industrialization, urbanization, modern technology, and rapidly growing population in India have posed a serious challenge to the waste management. In India, per capita generation rate of municipal solid waste ranges from 0. At present, the daily generation rate in South Asia, East Asia and the Pacific combined is approximately 1. Hazard management is essentially a problem solving process aimed at defining problems identifying hazards , gathering information about them assessing the risks and solving them controlling the risks. Integrated solid waste management is a comprehensive waste prevention, recycling, composting, and disposal programme. Disposing the waste in an environmentally friendly manner is highly crucial to all the nations of the world including India. The goal of urban solid waste management is to collect, treat and dispose of solid waste generated by the all the city dwellers in an environmentally, and socially satisfactory manner by using the most economical methods available.
Acid whey: Is the waste product an untapped goldmine?
Abernethy John F Brooklyn Sarco Company Inc New York Acme Tank Co New York.
Baking is a food cooking method that uses prolonged dry heat by convection, rather than by thermal radiation. Heat is gradually transferred "from the surface of cakes, cookies and breads to their centre. As heat travels through it transforms batters and dough into baked goods with a firm dry crust and a softer centre". Bakery products have become essential food items of the vast majority of population. The present day consumer looks for new bakery products, better appeal, taste and convenience from bakery foods. Bakery industry has also an important role in popularizing wheat in non-wheat consuming region of the World. With good planning and access to good staff, raw materials and markets, setting up a bakery can represent an excellent enterprise opportunity. The book is invaluable reading for those starting their own baking business or any baker looking to improve their existing business in order to increase profits. The book covers various aspects related to different bakery products with their manufacturing process and also provides contact details of raw material, plant and machinery suppliers with equipment photographs and their technical specifications. It provides a thorough understanding of the many new developments shaping the industry and offers detailed technical coverage of the manufacturing processes of bakery products. It examines the nature of bakery products, the role of the ingredients in determining their quality, processing methods and their control.
Fruit juice manufacturing process
Regret for the inconvenience: we are taking measures to prevent fraudulent form submissions by extractors and page crawlers. Received: July 22, Published: September 15, Using of citrus by-products in farm animals feeding. Open Access J Sci. DOI: Download PDF. Conventional feedstuffs are often expensive and therefore the utilization of agro-industrial by-products as feedstuffs may be economically worthwhile. Ruminant feeding systems based on locally available by-product feedstuffs BPF are often a practical alternative because the rumen microbial ecosystem can utilize BPF which often contain high levels of structural fiber to meet their nutrient requirements for maintenance, growth, reproduction and production.
Exploitation of Brewing Industry Wastes to Produce Functional Ingredients
On the other hand, the accumulation of huge amounts of food wastes every year has led to environmental degradation and especially to significant loss of valuable material that could otherwise be exploited as new health-promoting ingredients, fuels and a great variety of additives. In this respect, the biggest challenge of the current scientific world is to convert the underutilised by-products generated by the food and beverage industries into more profitable and marketable added value products which would also contribute significantly to meet the nowadays society needs. This chapter gives an overview regarding the possibility of exploiting the brewing industry wastes as sources of bioactive compounds in order to produce functional ingredients and products with added value. Brewing Technology. The research on the recovery of new functional ingredients from natural sources is one of the most important challenges in food science and technology [ 1 , 2 ].
Whey, the liquid residue of cheese, casein and yoghurt production, is one of the biggest reservoirs of food protein available today. World whey output at approximately million tonnes in contains some 1.
Fruit juice manufacturing process. How to Manufacture Fruit Juice. Fruit Juice Production Business Compliance.
The beverage industry consists of two major categories and eight sub-groups. The non-alcoholic category is comprised of soft drink syrup manufacture; soft drink and water bottling and canning; fruit juices bottling, canning and boxing; the coffee industry and the tea industry. Alcoholic beverage categories include distilled spirits, wine and brewing.
Не понимаю, - Николь глядела на устройство сверху. - Когда этой вещицей пользовался Орел, на экране были завитушки и какие-то непонятные - О, это их специальный технический язык, - отозвалась Синий Доктор. - Он невероятно точен, куда там нашему цветовому.