Whey, the liquid residue of cheese, casein and yoghurt production, is one of the biggest reservoirs of food protein available today. World whey output at approximately million tonnes in contains some 1. The latest research shows that whey protein is arguably the most nutritionally valuable protein available; little wonder that nutritional markets such as sports, clinical and infant nutrition are driving an unprecedented investment level in dairy production. Whey as a by-product from the manufacture of hard, semi-hard or soft cheese and rennet casein is known as sweet whey and has a pH of 5. Manufacture of mineral-acid precipitated casein yields acid whey with a pH of 4.
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Fruit juice manufacturing processVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Waste to Wealth : Recycled plastic paving stone
Juice is a drink made from the extraction or pressing of the natural liquid contained in fruit and vegetables. It can also refer to liquids that are flavored with concentrate or other biological food sources, such as meat or seafood , such as clam juice. Juice is commonly consumed as a beverage or used as an ingredient or flavoring in foods or other beverages, as for smoothies. Juice emerged as a popular beverage choice after the development of pasteurization methods enabled its preservation without using fermentation which is used in wine production.
Fruit juice consumption on average increases with country income level. The word "juice" comes from Old French in about ; it developed from the Old French words " jus, juis, jouis ", which mean "liquid obtained by boiling herbs".
Today, " au jus " refers to meat served along with its own juice, commonly as a gravy. Juice is prepared by mechanically squeezing or macerating sometimes referred to as cold pressed  fruit or vegetable flesh without the application of heat or solvents. For example, orange juice is the liquid extract of the fruit of the orange tree, and tomato juice is the liquid that results from pressing the fruit of the tomato plant.
Juice may be prepared in the home from fresh fruit and vegetables using a variety of hand or electric juicers. Many commercial juices are filtered to remove fiber or pulp , but high-pulp fresh orange juice is a popular beverage. Additives are put in some juices, such as sugar and artificial flavours in some fruit juice-based beverages ; savoury seasonings e. Common methods for preservation and processing of fruit juices include canning , pasteurization , concentrating ,  freezing , evaporation and spray drying.
Although processing methods vary between juices, the general processing method of juices includes: . After the fruits are picked and washed, the juice is extracted by one of two automated methods. In the first method, two metal cups with sharp metal tubes on the bottom cup come together, removing the peel and forcing the flesh of the fruit through the metal tube. The juice of the fruit, then escapes through small holes in the tube. The peels can then be used further, and are washed to remove oils , which are reclaimed later for usage.
The second method requires the fruits to be cut in half before being subjected to reamers , which extract the juice. After the juice is filtered, it may be concentrated in evaporators , which reduce the size of juice by a factor of 5, making it easier to transport and increasing its expiration date. Juices are concentrated by heating under a vacuum to remove water, and then cooling to around 13 degrees Celsius.
About two thirds of the water in a juice is removed. Juices can also be sold in a concentrated state, in which the consumer adds water to the concentrated juice as preparation. Juices are then pasteurized and filled into containers, often while still hot. If the juice is poured into a container while hot, it is cooled as quickly as possible. Packages that cannot stand heat require sterile conditions for filling.
Chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide can be used to sterilize containers. High intensity pulsed electric fields are being used as an alternative to heat pasteurization in fruit juices.
Heat treatments sometimes fail to make a quality, microbiological stable products. Pulsed electric fields use short pulses of electricity to inactivate microbes.
In addition, the use of PEF results in minimal detrimental effects on the quality of the food. Processing time of the juice is calculated by multiplying the number of pulses with the effective pulse duration. A juice or nectar including concentrate must state that it does. The term "juice drink" is not defined in the Regulations and can be used to describe any drink which includes juice, whatever the amount. A blend of fruit juice s with other ingredients, such as high-fructose corn syrup , is called a juice cocktail or juice drink.
For example, most orange juice contains added ethyl butyrate to enhance flavor , vitamin C as ascorbic acid , and water if from concentrate. When fruit juice is too sour, acidic, or rich to consume, it may be diluted with water and sugar to create an -ade such as lemonade, limeade, cherryade, and orangeade.
The 'ade' suffix may also refer to any sweetened, fruit-flavored drink, whether or not it actually contains any juice. Juices are often consumed for their perceived health benefits. For example, orange juice with natural or added vitamin C , folic acid , and potassium.
High consumption of fruit juice with added sugar may be linked to weight gain,   but not all studies have shown this effect. Although preliminary research indicated that cranberry juice or capsules may decrease the number of urinary tract infections in women with frequent infections,  a more substantial Cochrane review concluded that there is insufficient evidence to indicate that cranberry juice consumption has any effect on urinary tract infections. The American Academy of Pediatrics as of says that fruit juice should not be given to children under age one due to the lack of nutritional benefit.
Overconsumption of fruit juices may reduce nutrient intake compared to eating whole fruits, and may produce diarrhea, gas, abdominal pain, bloating, or tooth decay. Overconsumption of fruits and fruit juice may contribute to dental decay and cavities via the effect of fruit acids on tooth enamel.
Overconsumption of fruit juice with added sugars has also been linked to childhood obesity. The largest fruit juice consumers are New Zealand nearly a cup, or 8 ounces, each day and Colombia more than three quarters of a cup each day. Fruit juice consumption on average increased with country income level.
In , people in the United States consumed approximately 6. A juice bar is an establishment that primarily serves prepared juice beverages such as freshly squeezed or extracted fruit juices, juice blends, fruit smoothies a thick fruit drink, often iced , or other juices such as fresh wheatgrass juice. Sometimes other solid ingredients or nutritional supplements may be added as boosters, such as fresh bananas , nuts or nut butter , bodybuilding supplements , soy protein powder or others such as whey or hemp protein powders, wheat germ , or spirulina or chlorella.
Also if less juice is used with these same ingredients drinks called health shakes may be produced. Juice bars may be standalone businesses in cities, or located at gyms, along commuter areas, near lunch time areas, at beaches, and at tourist attractions. In Mexico , juice bars have become more popular in the s. Mexican juice bars often also sell healthy beverages and snacks. Groups of grape pits dated to BCE show early evidence of juice production; although it is thought that the grapes may have been alternatively used to produce wine.
Orange juice originated in the 17th century. In the 18th century, James Lind linked citrus fruits to the prevention of scurvy , which, a century later, led to the implementation of the Merchant Shipping Act of , requiring all Ocean-bound British ships to carry citrus-based juice on board.
In , a dentist by the name Thomas B. Welch developed a pasteurization method that allowed for the storage of juice, without the juice fermenting into alcohol. His method involved filtering squeezed grape juice into bottles, sealing them with cork and wax , and then placing them in boiling water. This method kills the yeast responsible for fermentation.
He then sold his new product as "Dr Welch's Unfermented Wine". The McKinley Tariff Act of increased import takes from 38 to The use of the word "juice" to mean "liquor" alcohol is from The meaning "lively, suggestive, racy, sensational" e. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the beverage. For other uses, see Juice disambiguation.
See also: Alcohol-free bar and Types of drinking establishments. Ward Retrieved Retrieved 26 January Centrifugal Juice Extractors". Retrieved 7 May June Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification. Food Engineering Series. Archived from the original on Archived from the original on December 3, Archived from the original on May 13, State Government of Victoria. Retrieved 17 October J Agric Food Chem.
Role of fruit juice in achieving the 5-a-day recommendation for fruit and vegetable intake. Nutrition Reviews 77 11 : — Faith; Barbara A. Dennison; Lynn S. Edmunds; Howard H. Stratton Public Health Nutrition. Am J Health Promot. Choose MyPlate. Retrieved 28 May Intake of fruit juice and incidence of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One 9 e Journal of Nutritional Science 6: E Retrieved December 22, Advances in Nutrition 9 2 : 78—
Regret for the inconvenience: we are taking measures to prevent fraudulent form submissions by extractors and page crawlers. Received: July 22, Published: September 15, Using of citrus by-products in farm animals feeding. Open Access J Sci. DOI:
EP0925727A2 - An emulsion concentrate for soft drinks - Google Patents
Kind code of ref document : A2. Kind code of ref document : A3. Effective date : Citrus fruit is preferred. Preferably the aqueous phase of the emulsion concentrate is adjusted to a pH between 2. The invention further provides an emulsion concentrate so prepared as well as a soft drink obtainable by diluting the emulsion concentrate. This invention relates to an emulsion concentrate for soft drinks, a process for the preparation thereof and soft drinks prepared from the emulsion concentrate.
The beverage industry consists of two major categories and eight sub-groups. The non-alcoholic category is comprised of soft drink syrup manufacture; soft drink and water bottling and canning; fruit juices bottling, canning and boxing; the coffee industry and the tea industry. Alcoholic beverage categories include distilled spirits, wine and brewing. Although many of these beverages, including beer, wine and tea, have been around for thousands of years, the industry has developed only over the past few centuries. The beverage products industry, viewed as an aggregate group, is highly fragmented. This is evident by the number of manufacturers, methods of packaging, production processes and final products.
NCBI Bookshelf. Fermentation is biotechnology in which desirable microorganisms are used in the production of value-added products of commercial importance. Fermentation occurs in nature in any sugar-containing mash from fruit, berries, honey, or sap tapped from palms. If left exposed in a warm atmosphere, airborne yeasts act on the sugar to convert it into alcohol and carbon dioxide. The making of wines and beers uses this biotechnology under controlled conditions. Alcoholic beverages have been produced for centuries in various societies. They are often central to the most valued personal and social ceremonies of both modern and less literate societies.
Exploitation of Brewing Industry Wastes to Produce Functional Ingredients
Juice is a drink made from the extraction or pressing of the natural liquid contained in fruit and vegetables. It can also refer to liquids that are flavored with concentrate or other biological food sources, such as meat or seafood , such as clam juice. Juice is commonly consumed as a beverage or used as an ingredient or flavoring in foods or other beverages, as for smoothies.
Establishing production facilities 2. Introduction 2. The site 2. Design and construction of the building 2. Equipment 2. Packaging materials. Introduction All fruit and vegetable processing operations require an hygienically designed and easily cleaned building to prevent products from becoming contaminated during processing. The two main sources of contamination are 1 insects and animals and 2 micro-organisms.
Electroplating is an electro deposition process for producing a dense, uniform, and adherent coating, usually of metal or alloys, upon a surface by the act of electric current. Electroplating is primarily used to change the surface properties of an object e. Electrochemical deposition is generally used for the growth of metals and conducting metal oxides because of the following advantages: i the thickness and morphology of the nanostructure can be precisely controlled by adjusting the electrochemical parameters, ii relatively uniform and compact deposits can be synthesized in template-based structures, iii higher deposition rates are obtained, and iv the equipment is inexpensive due to the non-requirements of either a high vacuum or a high reaction temperature. An electrochemical process where metal ions are transferred from a solution and are deposited as a thin layer onto surface of a cathode. In the recent years, developments in electronic and chemical engineering have extended the process of electroplating to a wide range of materials such as platinum, Alloy, Silver, Palladium, Rhodium, etc. The electroplating market is an application driven market, which depends largely on the net output of the manufacturing industry. The electroplating technology allows electro-deposition of multiple layers as thin as one-millionth of a centimeter which makes it an indispensable part of the semiconductor industry. Rising demand for computing devices is expected to create significant market opportunities for electroplating service providers.
Coal is one of the world's most plentiful energy resources. Coal is one of the fastest growing forms of energy after renewable sources and its share in the global primary energy consumption increasing rapidly. Lignin is the most abundant natural raw material available on Earth in terms of solar energy storage. Lignin is a complex chemical compound, cross linked polymer that forms a large molecular structure. Lignin can be used as a green alternative to many petroleum-derived substances, such as fuels, resins, rubber additives, thermoplastic blends and pharmaceuticals. Rosin is a complex mixture of mainly resin acids and small amount of non-acidic components.
Food production and processing in developing countries generate high levels of waste and byproducts, causing a negative environmental impact and significant expenses. However, these biomaterials have ample potential for generating food additives which in turn will minimize malnutrition and hunger in the developing countries where it is produced.
On the other hand, the accumulation of huge amounts of food wastes every year has led to environmental degradation and especially to significant loss of valuable material that could otherwise be exploited as new health-promoting ingredients, fuels and a great variety of additives. In this respect, the biggest challenge of the current scientific world is to convert the underutilised by-products generated by the food and beverage industries into more profitable and marketable added value products which would also contribute significantly to meet the nowadays society needs. This chapter gives an overview regarding the possibility of exploiting the brewing industry wastes as sources of bioactive compounds in order to produce functional ingredients and products with added value. Brewing Technology.
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Омэ. Николь проснулась от толчка. Ричард сидел возле нее в постели. - Что с тобой, дорогая.