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Space industrial mashed potatoes, vegetable and vegetable fruits

Space industrial mashed potatoes, vegetable and vegetable fruits

Chapter 9 Vegetable specific processing technologies. Contents - Previous - Next. Vegetable processors must appreciate the substantial differences that varieties of a given vegetable will possess. In addition to variety and genetic strain differences with respect to weather, insect and disease resistance, varieties of a given vegetable will differ in size, shape, time of maturity, and resistance to physical damage.

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Stainless Steel Potato Masher Ricer Fruit Juicer Vegetable Press Chrome Plated !


Chapter 9 Vegetable specific processing technologies. Contents - Previous - Next. Vegetable processors must appreciate the substantial differences that varieties of a given vegetable will possess. In addition to variety and genetic strain differences with respect to weather, insect and disease resistance, varieties of a given vegetable will differ in size, shape, time of maturity, and resistance to physical damage.

Varietal differences then further extend into warehouse storage stability, and suitability for such processing methods as canning, freezing, pickling or drying. A variety of peas that is suitable for canning may be quite unsatisfactory for freezing and varieties of potatoes that are preferred for freezing may be less satisfactory for drying or potato chip manufacture.

This should be expected since different varieties of a given vegetable will vary somewhat in chemical composition, cellular structure and biological activity of their enzyme system.

When vegetables are maturing in the field they are changing from day to day. There is a time when the vegetable will be at peak quality from the stand-point of colour, texture and flavour.

This peak quality is quick in passing and may last only a day. Harvesting and processing of several vegetables, including tomatoes, corn and peas are rigidly scheduled to capture this peak quality. After the vegetable is harvested it may quickly pass beyond the peak quality condition. This is independent of microbiological spoilage; these main deteriorations are related to:.

Since the heat further deteriorates the vegetables and speeds micro-organisms growth, the harvested vegetables must be cooled if not processed immediately. But cooling only slows down the rate of deterioration, it does not prevent it, and vegetables differ in their resistance to cold storage.

Each vegetable has its optimum cold storage temperature which may be between about C F. Moisture loss cannot be completely and effectively prevented by hermetic packaging. This was tried with plastic bags for fresh vegetables in supermarkets but the bags became moisture fogged, and deterioration of certain vegetables was accelerated because of buildup of CO2 and decrease of oxygen in the package.

It therefore is common to perforate such bags to prevent these defects as well as to minimise high humidity in the package which would encourage microbial growth. Shippers of fresh vegetables and vegetable processors, whether they can, freeze, dehydrate, or manufacture soups or ketchup, appreciate the instability and perishability of vegetables and so do everything they can to minimise delays in processing of the fresh product.

In many processing plants it is common practice to process vegetables immediately as they are received from the field. To ensure a steady supply of top quality produce during the harvesting period the large food processors will employ trained field men; they will advise on growing practices and on spacing of plantings so that vegetables will mature and can be harvested in rhythm with the processing plant capabilities.

This minimises stockpiling and need for storage. Cooling of vegetables in the field is common practice in some areas. Liquid nitrogen-cooled trucks may next provide transportation of fresh produce to the processing plant or directly to market. Upon arrival of vegetables at the processing centre the usual operations of cleaning, grading, peeling, cutting and the like are performed using a moderate amount of equipment but a good deal of hand labour also still remains.

This covers qualitative and quantitative control of delivered vegetables. The organoleptic control and the evaluation of the sanitary state, even if they are very important steps in vegetables' characteristics assessment, cannot establish their technological value.

On the other hand, laboratory controls do not precisely establish their technological properties because of the difficulty in putting into showing some deterioration when using rapid control methods. One correct method of vegetable quality appraisal is their overall evaluation based on the whole complex of data that can be obtained by combining an extensive organoleptic evaluation with simple analysis that can be performed rapidly in plant laboratory. These analysis can be:.

This step should be as short as possible and better completely eliminated. Vegetables can be stored in:. Refrigerated storage is always preferable and in all cases a processing centre needs a cold room for this purpose, adapted in volume I capacity to the types and quantities of vegetables and fruits that are further processed.

Washing is used not only to remove field soil and surface micro-organisms but also to remove fungicides, insecticides and other pesticides, since there are laws specifying maximum levels of these materials that may be retained on the vegetable; and in most cases the allowable residual level is virtually zero.

Washing water contains detergents or other sanitisers that can essentially completely remove these residues. The washing equipment, like all equipment subsequently used, will depend upon the size, shape and fragility of the particular kind of vegetable:. Some vegetables require skin removal. This can be done in various ways. This type of operation is performed with various types of equipment which depend upon the result expected and the characteristics of the fruit and vegetables, for example:.

Skins can be softened from the underlying tissues by submerging vegetables in hot alkali solution. Lye may be used at a concentration of about 0. The vegetables with loosened skins are then conveyed under high velocity jets of water which wash away the skins and residual lye. In order to avoid enzymatic browning, this chemical peeling is followed by a short boiling in water or an immersion in diluted citric acid solutions.

Wet heat steam. Other vegetables with thick skins such as beets, potatoes, carrots and sweet potatoes may be peeled with steam under pressure about 10 at as they pass through cylindrical vessels.

This softens the skin and the underlying tissue. When the pressure is suddenly released, steam under the skin expands and causes the skin to puff and crack. The skins are then washed away with jets of water at high pressure up to 12 at. Dry heat flame. Here too, heat causes steam to develop under skins and puff them so that they can be washed away with water. Manual peeling only use when the other methods are impossible or sometimes as a completion of the other three ways.

Average losses at this step are given in Table 9. This step is applied according to specific vegetable and processing technology requirements. The special heat treatment to inactivate enzymes is known as blanching. Blanching is not indiscriminate heating. Too little is ineffective, and too much damages the vegetables by excessive cooking, especially where the fresh character of the vegetable is subsequently to be preserved by processing.

Two of the more heat resistant enzymes important in vegetables are catalase and peroxidase. If these are destroyed then the other significant enzymes in vegetables also will have been inactivated. The heat treatment to destroy catalase and peroxidase in different vegetables are known, and sensitive chemical tests have been developed to detect the amounts of these enzymes that might survive a blanching treatment.

Catalase and peroxidase inactivation tests are presented in section 9. Because various types of vegetables differ in size, shape, heat conductivity, and the natural levels of their enzymes, blanching treatments have to be established on an experimental basis.

As with sterilisation of foods in cans, the larger the food item the longer it takes for heat to reach the centre.

Small vegetables may be adequately blanched in boiling water in a minute or two, large vegetables may require several minutes. Water blanching may be performed in double bottom kettles, in special baths with conveyor belts or in modern continuous blanching equipment.

In order to reduce losses of hydrosoluble substances mineral salts, vitamins, sugars, etc. An illustration of blanching parameters is seen in Table 9. Steam heat treatment can also be applied instead of water blanching as a preliminary step before freezing or drying, as long as the preservation method is only used for enzyme inactivation and not to modify consistency. For drying, the vegetables are conveyed directly from steaming equipment to drying installations without cooling.

Vegetable steaming is carried out in continuous installations with conveyer belts made from metallic sieves. Cooling of vegetables after water blanching or steaming is performed in order to avoid excessive softening of the tissues and has to follow immediately after these operations; one exception is the case of vegetables for drying which can be transferred directly to drying equipment without cooling.

Natural cooling is not recommended because is too long and generates significant losses in vitamin C content. Cooling in pre-cooled air from special installations is sometimes used for vegetables that will be frozen. Too long a cooling time generates supplementary losses in valuable hydrosoluble substances; in order to avoid this, the temperature of the cooling water has to be as low as possible. Large quantities of vegetable products are canned.

In order to check the peroxidase activity two solutions have to be prepared:. From various parts of the material samples are taken about pieces, etc. The contents of the test tube is shaken well. The gradual appearance of a weak pink colour indicates an incomplete peroxidase inactivation - reaction slightly positive. If there are no tissue colour modifications after 5 minutes, the reaction is negative and the enzymes have been inactivated. A rapid and intensive brown-reddish tissue colouring indicates a high peroxidase activity positive reaction.

After 15 min softening, 0. In the presence of catalase, a strong oxygen generation is observed for about minutes. These tests are of a paramount importance in order to determine the vegetable blanching treatments temperature and time ; incomplete enzyme inactivation has a negative effect on finished product quality.

For cabbage catalase inactivation by blanching is sufficient; blanching further to peroxidase inactivation would have negative effects on product quality and even complete browning. For all other vegetables and for potatoes, both tests MUST be negative, for catalase and for peroxidase.

I've only used this once and I made a big mess trying to scoop cooked potatoes into it, then ricing them over a bowl but, when I was done, my mash was really smooth. Also, don't overfill the ricer, it's too hard to mash if over full.

Freezing is one of the oldest and most widely used methods of food preservation, which allows preservation of taste, texture, and nutritional value in foods better than any other method. The freezing process is a combination of the beneficial effects of low temperatures at which microorganisms cannot grow, chemical reactions are reduced, and cellular metabolic reactions are delayed Delgado and Sun, Freezing preservation retains the quality of agricultural products over long storage periods. As a method of long-term preservation for fruits and vegetables, freezing is generally regarded as superior to canning and dehydration, with respect to retention in sensory attributes and nutritive properties Fennema, The safety and nutrition quality of frozen products are emphasized when high quality raw materials are used, good manufacturing practices are employed in the preservation process, and the products are kept in accordance with specified temperatures.

Katherine Leonard Turner. Univ of California Press , 10 thg 1, - trang. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, working-class Americans had eating habits that were distinctly shaped by jobs, families, neighborhoods, and the tools, utilities, and size of their kitchens—along with their cultural heritage. How the Other Half Ate is a deep exploration by historian and lecturer Katherine Turner that delivers an unprecedented and thoroughly researched study of the changing food landscape in American working-class families from industrialization through the s. Jennie Rizzandi doing piecework with her family New York City Family crocheting caps New York City Mrs Palontona and her daughter making lace in New York City

Consumers' Guide. Agricultural Marketing Administration earmarking sup. Aluminum how to polish No 2 p American International Institute for the Protection.

Макс, ты цепляешься за соломинку, - проговорила она негромко.

К счастью, пять из этих одиннадцати символов относятся к числу детерминативов. Словом, для нашего удобства они разработали новый диалект собственного языка, использующий лишь те цвета, которые мы можем различать. Арчи говорит, что этому диалекту уже учат в некоторых школах. - Удивительно. Ты хочешь сказать, что они _подправили_ свой язык, чтобы он соответствовал нашим физическим возможностям.

- Не совсем, папа. Между собой они по-прежнему переговариваются на своем истинном языке. Вот почему я не всегда понимаю. Однако, когда они придумали этот диалект и усовершенствовали его, общаться с ними стало Ричард покончил с едой и уже собирался задать Элли новый вопрос относительно языка октопауков, когда услышал зов Николь.

Челнок медленно повернулся, и Николь припала к окну. Она увидела другие сферические модули Узла, транспортные коридоры, за ними корабль-"звезду", в котором ее друзья и семья готовились к переезду на новое место. Неподалеку виднелась желтая звезда Тау Кита, очень похожая на Солнце. Однако ее лучи не мешали Николь различить звезды на черной ткани космоса.

Погляди-ка, - взволнованно проговорил Патрик, - это мама и дядя Обе фигурки повернули на юг от утеса и моря. Ричард, Макс и Патрик приблизились к ним, чтобы разглядеть получше.

Николь мягко отвела его руки. - Это очень важно для. Ричард отступил на пару шагов. - Когда я поняла, что меня вот-вот казнят, - медленно проговорила Николь, - я осознала, что уладила все свои личные дела, за исключением двух. Я должна была еще кое-что сказать тебе и Кэти. Я даже попросила полицейского, который объяснил мне, как будет производиться казнь, принести мне перо и бумагу, чтобы написать два предсмертных письма.

Николь остановилась на мгновение, словно бы подыскивая точные слова. - В те жуткие дни я так и не смогла вспомнить, Ричард, - продолжила она, - что когда-либо говорила тебе, как рада тому, что ты был моим мужем.

Я не хотела умирать, не признавшись в. Она остановилась во второй раз, коротко оглядела комнату и снова посмотрела прямо в глаза Ричарду.

As a method of long-term preservation for fruits and vegetables, freezing is generally to retention in sensory attributes and nutritive properties (Fennema, ). . The frozen vegetable industry mostly grew after the development of scientific Green Beans. Mixed Vegetables. Peas. Potatoes.

Когда ты сказала, что собираешься играть в карты с октопауками, я решила, что дочь моя лишилась рассудка. Элли расхохоталась. - Ну что ж, как только мы здесь поселились, я поняла, что следует придумать какое-нибудь совместное занятие. Люди просто не хотели подходить к октопаукам, чтобы начать с ними разговор, даже если рядом находились переводчики - я или кирпичеголовый. Игры создавали какой-то стимул для встреч.

Прежде нормальные взрослые октопауки разделялись на два пола. Существенное различие между ними заключалось в том, что один из полов способен по достижении зрелости оплодотворять царицу. Сексуально настроенные взрослые копулировали удовольствия ради, но, поскольку этот контакт не имел последствий, различия между полами стирались.

Более того, долгосрочные связи в колониях чаще завязывались среди представителей одного пола, испытывавших сходные ощущения и разделявших общие точки зрения. Теперь ситуация усложнилась.

Мы хотим, чтобы предводители чужаков знали: граждане Нового Эдема не позволят им осуществить свои захватнические До этого момента Накамура обращался ко всей аудитории.

Теперь он повернулся к пленникам, сидевшим посреди зала.

В пламени как будто промелькнули обломки геликоптера. Не более чем в километре от нее с неба падали рваные клочья купола. Николь еще не могла отдышаться.

Синий Доктор видела напряжение на лице - Нет, я не справляюсь с дорогой, - проговорила Николь, стиснув щупальца октопаучихи изо всех сил.

Да, - ответила Наи. - Тогда объявляю вас мужем и женой. - Патрик и Наи обнялись, и все одобрительно закричали. Новобрачные разделили свои первые объятия с - А ты когда-нибудь разговаривал с Патриком о сексе.

Я не хочу рассказывать о планах октопауков более одного раза. Николь не могла уснуть.

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