Spring is the time to put away your furs, and correct storage during the off-season is essential if you want to enjoy the warmth, comfort and beauty of your furs for many years. More on this below. If you own valuable furs valuable financially or sentimentally , you should definitely store them professionally during the summer months. Most people store their furs through the summer months, and bring them home when the cooler weather returns in the fall. Another reason for storing fur with a professional is that it provides an opportunity for your retail furrier to thoroughly inspect your fur at the end of the season. Small tears, missing buttons, worn spots or other damage can then be identified and repaired before they become bigger and more costly problems.
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Meat preservation helps to control spoilage by inhibiting the growth of microorganisms, slowing enzymatic activity, and preventing the oxidation of fatty acids that promote rancidity. There are many factors affecting the length of time meat products can be stored while maintaining product safety and quality. The physical state of meat plays a role in the number of microorganisms that can grow on meat.
For example, grinding meat increases the surface area, releases moisture and nutrients from the muscle fibres, and distributes surface microorganisms throughout the meat. Chemical properties of meat, such as pH and moisture content, affect the ability of microorganisms to grow on meat. Natural protective tissues fat or skin can prevent microbial contamination, dehydration , or other detrimental changes. Covering meats with paper or protective plastic films prevents excessive moisture loss and microbial contamination.
Temperature is the most important factor influencing bacterial growth. Therefore, meat should be stored at temperatures that are as cold as possible. Refrigerated storage is the most common method of meat preservation. The typical refrigerated storage life for fresh meats is 5 to 7 days. Freezer storage is an excellent method of meat preservation. It is important to wrap frozen meats closely in packaging that limits air contact with the meat in order to prevent moisture loss during storage.
The length of time meats are held at frozen storage also determines product quality. The rate of freezing is very important in maintaining meat quality. Rapid freezing is superior; if meats are frozen slowly, large ice crystals form in the meat and rupture cell membranes. When this meat is thawed, much of the original moisture found in the meat is lost as purge juices that flow from the meat. For this reason cryogenic freezing the use of supercold substances such as liquid nitrogen or other rapid methods of freezing meats are used at the commercial level to maintain maximal product quality.
It is important to note, however, that freezing does not kill most microorganisms; they simply become dormant. When the meat is thawed, the spoilage continues where it left off. Thawing meats often can cause more detrimental quality changes than freezing. In contrast to freezing, thawing should be a slow process. Meats are best thawed in the refrigerator with packaging left intact, so that moisture loss is minimized. This rapid method provides a conducive environment for the growth of food-borne microorganisms and increases the risk of food poisoning.
Oxygen is required for many bacteria to grow. For this reason most meats are vacuum-packaged, which extends the storage life under refrigerated conditions to approximately days. In addition, vacuum packaging minimizes the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids and slows the development of rancid meat. The second most common method of meat preservation is canning. Canning involves sealing meat in a container and then heating it to destroy all microorganisms capable of food spoilage.
Under normal conditions canned products can safely be stored at room temperature indefinitely. Drying is another common method of meat preservation.
Drying removes moisture from meat products so that microorganisms cannot grow. Dry sausages, freeze-dried meats, and jerky products are all examples of dried meats capable of being stored at room temperature without rapid spoilage. One ancient form of food preservation used in the meat industry is fermentation. Fermentation involves the addition of certain harmless bacteria to meat.
These fermenting bacteria produce acid as they grow, lowering the pH of the meat and inhibiting the growth of many pathogenic microorganisms. Irradiation, or radurization, is a pasteurization method accomplished by exposing meat to doses of radiation. Radurization is as effective as heat pasteurization in killing food-spoilage microorganisms.
Irradiation of meat is accomplished by exposing meat to high-energy ionizing radiation produced either by electron accelerators or by exposure to gamma-radiation-emitting substances such as cobalt or cesium Irradiated products are virtually identical in character to nonirradiated products, but they have significantly lower microbial contamination.
Irradiated fresh meat products still require refrigeration and packaging to prevent spoilage, but the refrigerated storage life of these products is greatly extended. Meat curing and smoking are two of the oldest methods of meat preservation. They not only improve the safety and shelf life of meat products but also enhance the colour and flavour.
Smoking of meat decreases the available moisture on the surface of meat products, preventing microbial growth and spoilage. Meat curing, as commonly performed in products such as ham or sausage, involves the addition of mixtures containing salt, nitrite , and other preservatives.
Salt decreases the moisture in meats available to spoilage microorganisms. Nitrite prevents microorganisms from growing and retards rancidity in meats. Nitrite also produces the pink colour associated with cured products by binding as nitric oxide to myoglobin.
However, the use of nitrite in meat products is controversial owing to its potential cancer-causing activity. Sodium erythorbate or ascorbate is another common curing additive. It not only decreases the risks associated with the use of nitrite but also improves cured meat colour development.
Other common additives include alkaline phosphates, which improve the juiciness of meat products by increasing their water-holding ability. Meat processing. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback.
Load Previous Page. Preservation and storage Meat preservation helps to control spoilage by inhibiting the growth of microorganisms, slowing enzymatic activity, and preventing the oxidation of fatty acids that promote rancidity.
Cold storage Temperature is the most important factor influencing bacterial growth. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Meat may be preserved by dry curing or with a pickling solution. The ingredients used in curing and pickling are sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, sodium chloride, sugar, and citric acid or vinegar. Meats are often one of the major components in a frozen meal.
Several processing methods are used in preparing meats, such as marinating, cooking, and cutting or slicing. In a traffic bridge linked Omaha and Council Bluffs, and by electric streetcar service had been established in and between both cities, further integrating the….
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Meat preservation helps to control spoilage by inhibiting the growth of microorganisms, slowing enzymatic activity, and preventing the oxidation of fatty acids that promote rancidity. There are many factors affecting the length of time meat products can be stored while maintaining product safety and quality. The physical state of meat plays a role in the number of microorganisms that can grow on meat. For example, grinding meat increases the surface area, releases moisture and nutrients from the muscle fibres, and distributes surface microorganisms throughout the meat. Chemical properties of meat, such as pH and moisture content, affect the ability of microorganisms to grow on meat. Natural protective tissues fat or skin can prevent microbial contamination, dehydration , or other detrimental changes.
Storing Fur: How to Care for Your Furs During Off-Season
Shearling is a skin from a recently shorn sheep or lamb that has been tanned and dressed with the wool left on. Usually the suede side is worn outward. Real shearling breathes and is more flexible, much heavier in weight and the fur is much denser than synthetic. Synthetic shearling fur is typically called sherpa. Synthetic or fake shearling has a bit of a sheen to its outer while real shearling outer hide is dull and a bit tacky to the touch.
MIXED-FABRICATION PADDED JACKET
Meat is defined as those animal tissues which are suitable for use as food. These are the main soft tissues of the carcass: muscle, mainly skeletal 30— 65 percent , fatty 10—45 percent and connective tissues. Other animal tissues used as food, and also to some extent in meat processing, are the internal organs including the blood. The structural unit of muscle is a specialized cell, the muscle fibre, which constitutes 72—92 percent of the muscle volume. The membrane surrounding the muscle fibre is called the sarcolemma and the intracellular substance the sarcoplasm.
The procedures used in the production of frankfurters are typical for all fine cut emulsion-type sausages. Emulsion-type sausages originated in Europe, where they were mainly produced from hot prerigor meat. Emulsion-type sausages may be subdivided into small diameter and large diameter sausages. Frankfurters and wieners are examples of small diameter emulsion-type sausages. Originally, wieners were stuffed in sheep casings and frankfurters in pig casings. Bologna or mortadella are similar products but filled into large casings beef middles. Emulsion-type sausages are basically made from a mixture of finely chopped meat, fatty tissue and water or ice. They are usually smoked. The formulation for this type of sausage not only contains meats of high water binding properties but also includes meats characterized by intermediate binding properties.
Dulce de Leche—Chemistry and Processing Technology
The slaughter of livestock involves three distinct stages: preslaughter handling, stunning, and slaughtering. In the United States the humane treatment of animals during each of these stages is required by the Humane Slaughter Act. Preslaughter handling is a major concern to the livestock industry, especially the pork industry.
Fake fur , also called faux fur , is known as pile fabric, which is engineered to have the appearance and warmth of animal fur. It was first introduced on the market in These early attempts at imitation fur were made using hair from the alpaca , a South American mammal. In the s, the quality of fake furs was vastly improved by advances in textile manufacture technology. However, the true modern fake furs were not developed until the mids, with the introduction of acrylic polymers as replacements for alpaca hair. However, its increasing popularity has been credited to its promotion by animal rights and animal welfare organizations which claim that it is an animal-friendly alternative to traditional fur clothing. Fake fur is used for all purposes where otherwise real fur of animal origin would be used, but also for stuffed animals , fashion accessory and home decorations like pillows, bedding and throws. It is also sometimes used for craft projects because it can be sewn on a sewing machine. Real fur is generally thicker and requires a special machine, hand sewing or an awl to sew it. In the Soviet , and now Russian Army , fish fur is used as a slang term for the fake fur used on winter clothing and the ubiquitous ushanka hats. Similarly, fashion design labels such as Ralph Lauren and Chanel have promoted the use of fake fur in their collections.
Threading Your Way Through the Labeling Requirements Under the Textile and Wool Acts
По пути в домен цариц, составлявший часть Изумрудного города, которую Николь никогда не посещала. Синий Доктор напомнила Николь о некоторых непривычных для человека аспектах размножения октопауков. - В нормальные времена оплодотворение каждой из трех цариц нашей колонии происходит один раз каждые три-пять лет, но зрелости достигает лишь небольшая доля оплодотворенных яиц.
Однако в связи с подготовкой к войне Верховный Оптимизатор недавно объявила о возобновлении населения. И потому все три царицы откладывают полное количество яиц. Их оплодотворили самцы, отобранные для войны и только что совершившие сексуальный переход.
Этот факт имеет огромное значение: он, по крайней мере символически, гарантирует, что каждый из этих октопауков генетически продолжит колонию.
Симона проводила мать по длинному коридору к дверце из имитированной - Итак, с вами здесь живут шестеро детей, - проговорила Николь, - в том числе трое, которых ты выносила и родила. - Да, это. У нас с Майклом было двое мальчиков и двое девочек, рожденных "естественным методом", как ты говоришь. Старший, Даррен, умер, когда ему было семь. долгая история, и, если у нас будет время, я расскажу тебе ее завтра.
Все остальные дети выросли из эмбрионов в их лаборатории. Они добрались до дверей в туалетную.
Но те, кто определен в Узел, в случае нежелания могут изменить место своего назначения. Сегодня, после того как все приписанные к Носителю перейдут на свой корабль, я жду в кафетерии тех, кто хочет вместо Узла отправиться на Носитель. Если у кого-нибудь из вас есть вопросы, весь следующий час я буду находиться за большим столом в нише главного коридора.
- И что сказал тебе Орел.
Это когда Патрик и Макс заявили, что хотели бы вернуться в Новый Ричард кивнул. - Наверняка, - ответила Николь. - Мне кажется, октопауки постарались убедить себя в том, что мы полностью довольны пребыванием .
Элли и Эпонина вместе с Арчи завершали все приготовления к отбытию на следующее утро. - Ты сегодня тихая, - сказал Ричард. - Да, это так, - согласилась Николь.
Конечно, ей приходилось догадываться о смысле некоторых слов - фразы иногда выходили за пределы возможностей ее зрения, - но ведь проще было следить глазами, чем стараться сконцентрировать свой слух на звуках, исходивших из аудиосистемы октопауков.
Через какое-то время люди привыкли к инопланетному произношению и начали понимать большую часть слов. Верховный Оптимизатор октопауков отметил, что в их благодатном краю все в порядке, а свидетельством бесспорных успехов сложного общества октопауков, состоящего из самых разных видов, являются изобилие и разнообразие пищи, представленной на - Но подобного изобилия, - говорил оратор, - нельзя было достичь без надежного взаимодействия видов.
Далее в своей краткой речи Верховный Оптимизатор назвал передовиков.