Since July, its factories have been shut down two days a month, paychecks of most of the company's 85, employees have been reduced and hiring any new employee requires highest-level approval. But in a new, low-slung building in Cupertino, Calif. They are racing against the clock to come out with an entirely new line of computers, code-named Spectrum, that could change the way computers are designed and almost certainly will change Hewlett-Packard's fortunes. For Hewlett-Packard, one of the premier companies in the electronics industry and the company that founded Silicon Valley, is engaged in the biggest gamble of its year history. Indeed, Hewlett-Packard has never needed a hit like it does now. This week it is expected to report an earnings decline for fiscal , the first such decline in a decade.
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Introduction to Computer Information Systems/Print version
Gross Domestic Product is the unduplicated value of the goods and services produced by a given industry in the economic territory of a country or a region during a given period. For the period following the most recent available SUT, as detailed information on the inputs and, to some extent, on the outputs is not always readily available, monthly GDP by industry can be estimated by holding the relationship between output and GDP by industry in volume terms constant from the latest available SUT year.
Monthly GDP data is compiled at the individual industry level and is estimated using either output projectors e. Monthly GDP: Detailed description of common portion: Sections a to j below provide a description of the generic steps undertaken to compile GDP by industry for all the vectors, including information about revisions.
That is, the volume of value added generated from a given volume of output for a specific industry is believed to be constant over short periods of time, as major technological changes usually require some time to change this relationship significantly. For the years and months following the most recent SUT table, as detailed information by commodity on the outputs and inputs for all industries is not readily available, real GDP by industry can be estimated by holding the relationship between real gross output and real valued added constant.
The compilation of monthly GDP estimates is performed for individual industries whereas it is done for industries in the detailed annual SUT. Although both programs cover the entire economy, the monthly GDP program uses a slightly different level of industry in its process.
An industry concordance between the monthly GDP program and the detailed Supply and Use tables exists. The market component is often referred to as the business sector whereas the non-market component is often called the non-business sector.
Market producers are establishments, all or most of whose output is market output. In contrast, non-market producers are establishments owned by government units or non-profit institutions serving households that supply goods or services free, or at prices that are not economically significant to households or the community as a whole. These producers may also have some sales of secondary market output whose prices are intended to cover their costs or earn a surplus: for example, sales of reproductions by non-market museums.
Though governments and non-profit institutions serving households may have establishments undertaking market production, most of their activity will be undertaken on a non-market basis. Though most industries presented in the monthly GDP program comprise establishments entirely belonging either to the market or the non-market component, a few industries include establishments from both.
This projector-based approach is necessary because complete monthly information on outputs and intermediate inputs is not available. Monthly surveys do not cover all commodities produced by a certain industry nor all producers of a certain commodity, and usually collect only scarce information on intermediate inputs.
As stated above, the basic assumption underlying the projector method is that changes in outputs or inputs acceptably reflect growth rates in GDP. In volume terms, this assumption is reasonable since technological advances which permit a different amount of output to be produced from the same amount of inputs normally occur slowly. Generally, estimating changes in GDP in volume terms using output as indicator yields a close approximation to the change in GDP.
The output in volume terms can be based on deflated value of nominal output, that is nominal value deflated by one or more appropriate price indexes. This deflation type is used in the majority of the manufacturing, retail and wholesale industries. A more direct measure of volume of output is also used when available, that is physical quantity multiplied by a base year price.
Labour input is either the number of hours worked or the number of employees in the industry. For the most part, approximating changes in GDP by changes in labour input is subject to the same sort of assumptions and limitations that apply to using output as an indicator.
It should be noted that, for a few industries, both output and labour input indicators are used in conjunction. In a very few cases, an indirect approach is applied instead of a direct measurement of either outputs or inputs. An example is the truck transportation industry. Output by this industry is estimated based on gross revenues received from direct purchases of freight services by industries for intermediate use.
Such expenditure by businesses is projected based on the movement in output of the consuming industries. The assumption is that the amount paid for truck transport is a fixed proportion of an industry's output.
For a few exceptional cases where monthly information is scarce, related or general indicators are used. Although the annual Supply and Use tables SUT and monthly estimates of GDP by industry are based on the same concepts, definitions and classification schemes, the methodologies underlying the two sets of statistics use different data sources and techniques. The detailed SUT in volume terms, which provide the annual benchmarks for the monthly GDP, are produced using a double-deflation method, that is deflating the output and the intermediate inputs separately.
The GDP, or value added, is calculated as the difference between the output and the intermediate inputs. The deflation is done at the goods and services i. The SUT in volume terms are calculated at the national level, on an annual basis only. They are available about two and half years after the end of the reference year; this is because of the delay in obtaining the needed source data and by the complex nature of producing such a detailed account.
For two full years and part of the third year following the most recent SUT and also for sub-annual i. Estimates of GDP in these periods are projections, that are essentially based on proxy indicators such as output, employment-based data or a combination of both. As a result of using different data sources and methodologies, the annual volume of GDP from the SUT and the yearly totals from the independently produced monthly estimates are not initially identical.
However, for each of the industry and aggregates, this initial difference between the two sets of estimates is then eliminated by integrating the annual benchmark values into the monthly GDP estimates as soon as the most recent SUT become available. This blending process is called benchmarking. The technique used to do so is the proportional Denton-Cholette quadratic minimization method. This method adjusts the monthly estimates to the annual values in such a way to preserve, as much as possible, the variation of the original monthly estimates while maintaining the annual constraint.
This means that data for each industry and each aggregate are obtained from a chained volume index, multiplied by the industry's value added in For the period starting with the month after the latest SUT, the monthly GDP data are derived by chaining a fixed-weight Laspeyres volume index to the prior period.
The fixed weights are industry prices from the latest SUT. The monthly GDP measure can therefore be seen as a hybrid volume measure, i. Currently the base year for such constant prices estimates is This means that the estimates for each industry are obtained from a constant price volume index where the constant prices are from the year The monthly estimates, while first derived using fixed weights, are subsequently benchmarked to annually chained Laspeyres volume measures obtained from the supply and use tables in volume terms.
These adjustments are referred to as balancing adjustments. One, or more, of the following situations may warrant the use of an adjustment:. It should be noted that while the industry-based and expenditure-based GDP measures are compiled independently, the two measures share a significant amount of source data which bring an added measure of coherence to the two. It should also be noted that the monthly GDP industry measure is readily converted to a quarterly measure by aggregating the 3 months of any given quarter.
The comprehensive validation and analysis process that takes place while compiling the industry and expenditure-based GDP will often reveal data inconsistencies and allow an occasion for their remediation. However, even after having addressed these statistical issues, balancing adjustments are, at times, required to bring the two overall measures closer.
Revisions arise from updates to projectors e. More comprehensive revisions are also carried out on an occasional basis in order to incorporate new concepts and definitions and, less frequently, to implement a new reference year for the volume estimates. These comprehensive revisions are done in tandem with revisions conducted for the other macroeconomic accounts. The revision policy for this vector and all the vectors contained in the monthly GDP table is as follows: to revise back to the previous year for the January to August reference months; for the September reference month, back to January of the fourth previous year; and for the October to December reference months, back to January of the current year.
The value of output in volume real terms is obtained as follows:. Manufacturing output in nominal prices for any given month is calculated by adding the monthly shipments together with the change in inventories of the goods in process GIP and the change in inventories of the finished products FP.
This information comes from the monthly survey of manufacturing MSM. The deflated output is arrived at by taking each component shipments, change in GIP, change in FP of the output in nominal prices and dividing it by relevant price indexes deflators. The weighted average of these IPPIs then forms the industry deflator that is used to deflate the shipment component in nominal prices calculated above for this vector. Deflators of opening inventories are equal to deflators of closing inventories in the previous month.
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Such devices make up the peripheral equipment of modern digital computer systems. Peripherals are commonly divided into three kinds: input devices, output devices, and storage devices which partake of the characteristics of the first two. An input device converts incoming data and instructions into a pattern of electrical signals in binary code that are comprehensible to a digital computer. An output device reverses the process, translating the digitized signals into a form intelligible to the user.
Computer hardware is a collective term used to describe any of the physical components of an analog or digital computer. Computer hardware can be categorized as having either internal or external components. These components collectively process or store the instructions delivered by the program or operating system OS. External components, also called peripheral components , are those items that are often connected to the computer in order to control either its input or output. All these hardware devices are designed to either provide instructions to the software or render results from its execution. All these hardware devices are designed to either provide instructions to the software or render the results from its execution.
The technology resources recommended for teaching, learning, management, and administrative environments in order to support all school staff and students are outlined in this section of the facilities guide. The articulation of these recommended resources and the functions they will serve should drive the design of the infrastructure needed to support this wide range of diverse functions at both the district and school levels. Emphasis is placed on connectivity for both local and global communication and collaboration, along with flexibility for maximizing potential of existing resources, and open design that will support needs not yet envisioned. Additional information regarding national efforts in the area of energy conservation and effective design strategies can be found at the following Web sites:. These considerations will be noted as they apply to specific environments in this section.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Secondary Storage External Memory of Computer- Peripheral Devices-T and Cyber Law
What They Do : Computer hardware engineers research, design, develop, and test computer systems and components. Work Environment : Computer hardware engineers usually work in research laboratories that build and test various types of computer models. Most work in computer systems design services and in manufacturing. Job Outlook : Employment of computer hardware engineers is projected to grow 6 percent over the next ten years, about as fast as the average for all occupations. A limited number of engineers will be needed to meet the demand for new computer hardware because more technological innovation takes place with software than with hardware. Related Careers : Explore occupations that share similar duties, skills, interests, education, or training with the occupation covered in the profile. Following is everything you need to know about a career as a computer hardware engineer with lots of details. As a first step, take a look at some of the following jobs, which are real jobs with real employers. You will be able to see the very real job career requirements for employers who are actively hiring. The link will open in a new tab so that you can come back to this page to continue reading about the career:.
THE INDUSTRIAL WIKI
The history of computing hardware covers the developments from early simple devices to aid calculation to modern day computers. Before the 20th century, most calculations were done by humans. Early mechanical tools to help humans with digital calculations, like the abacus , were called "calculating machines", called by proprietary names, or referred to as calculators.
GIS implementations in the lates to mids required the use of exotic peripheral devices to encode and display geospatial information. Data encoding was normally performed in one of two modes: automated raster scanning and manual vector coordinate recording. Raster scanning systems in this era were extremely expensive, operated in batch mode, and were located at a limited number of centralized facilities, such as federal mapping agencies. Coordinate digitizers were more widely distributed and were often configured with dedicated minicomputers to handle editing and formatting tasks. Data display devices produced hardcopy and softcopy output. Two commonly encountered hardcopy devices were line printers and pen plotters. Softcopy display consisted of cathode ray tube devices that operated using frame buffer and storage tube technologies. Each device was driven by specialized software provided by device manufacturers, leading to widespread hardware-software incompatibly. This problem led to the emergence of device independence to promote increased levels of interoperability among disparate input and output devices. Armstrong, M.
Computer Hardware Engineers
That same year in Germany, engineer Konrad Zuse built his Z2 computer, also using telephone company relays. Their first product, the HP A Audio Oscillator, rapidly became a popular piece of test equipment for engineers. In , Bell Telephone Laboratories completes this calculator, designed by scientist George Stibitz. Stibitz stunned the group by performing calculations remotely on the CNC located in New York City using a Teletype terminal connected via to New York over special telephone lines. This is likely the first example of remote access computing. The Z3, an early computer built by German engineer Konrad Zuse working in complete isolation from developments elsewhere, uses 2, relays, performs floating point binary arithmetic, and has a bit word length. The Z3 was used for aerodynamic calculations but was destroyed in a bombing raid on Berlin in late Zuse later supervised a reconstruction of the Z3 in the s, which is currently on display at the Deutsches Museum in Munich.
History of computing hardware
Today's world runs on computers. Nearly every aspect of modern life involves computers in some form or fashion. As technology is advancing, the scale of computer use is increasing. Computer users include both corporate companies and individuals. Computers are efficient and reliable; they ease people's onerous jobs through software and applications specific to their needs offering convenience. Moreover, computers allow users to generate correct information quickly, hold the information so it is available at any time. Computers and technology affect how we live, work and entertain ourselves. From voice-powered personal assistants like Siri, Alexa, and Cortana to more underlying and fundamental technologies such as behavioral algorithms, suggestive searches and autonomously-powered self-driving vehicles boasting powerful predictive capabilities. Computers offer a quicker way to gain information which is by providing an internet access. Up to this moment, many internet browsers and applications have been invented.
Monitor and control electronic computer and peripheral electronic data processing equipment to process business, scientific, engineering, and other data according to operating instructions. Monitor and respond to operating and error messages. May enter commands at a computer terminal and set controls on computer and peripheral devices.
Glossary Of Technical Terms
Gross Domestic Product is the unduplicated value of the goods and services produced by a given industry in the economic territory of a country or a region during a given period. For the period following the most recent available SUT, as detailed information on the inputs and, to some extent, on the outputs is not always readily available, monthly GDP by industry can be estimated by holding the relationship between output and GDP by industry in volume terms constant from the latest available SUT year. Monthly GDP data is compiled at the individual industry level and is estimated using either output projectors e. Monthly GDP: Detailed description of common portion: Sections a to j below provide a description of the generic steps undertaken to compile GDP by industry for all the vectors, including information about revisions.
New Jersey Department of Education
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Chapter 7. Telecommunications, the Internet, and Information System Architecture.