From detailing foundations to designing home theaters, home offices, and other specialty rooms, Architectural Graphic Standards for Residential Construction is a resource that's as efficient as it is comprehensive. You'll find design details that incorporate best construction practices as well as guidelines for state-of-the-art wiring, heating, and cooling systems. In step with current practices, this volume includes the latest guidelines for:. The AIA offers continuing education, conferences, and professional information to its membership and their clients.
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Taking the Mystery Out of Equipotential Bonding Requirements for Swimming PoolsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Robot structural Analysis Professional Design Warehouse Part 01
Construction workers build, repair, maintain, renovate, modify and demolish houses, office buildings, temples, factories, hospitals, roads, bridges, tunnels, stadiums, docks, airports and more.
The International Labour Organization ILO classifies the construction industry as government and private-sector firms erecting buildings for habitation or for commercial purposes and public works such as roads, bridges, tunnels, dams or airports.
In the United States and some other countries, construction workers also clean hazardous waste sites. Construction as a proportion of gross domestic product varies widely in industrialized countries.
In most countries, employers have relatively few full-time employees. A large portion of construction workers are unskilled labourers; others are classified in any of several skilled trades see table In some developing countries, the proportion of women is higher and they tend to be concentrated in unskilled occupations.
In some countries, the work is left to migrant workers, and in others, the industry provides relatively well-paid employment and an avenue to financial security. For many, unskilled construction work is the entry into the paid labour force in construction or other industries.
Tunnel workers Work Organization and Labour Instability Construction projects, especially large ones, are complex and dynamic. Several employers may work on one site simultaneously, with the mix of contractors changing with the phases of the project; for example, the general contractor is present at all times, excavating contractors early, then carpenters, electricians and plumbers, followed by floor finishers, painters and landscapers. Construction workers typically are hired from project to project and may spend only a few weeks or months at any one project.
There are consequences for both workers and work projects. Workers must make and remake productive and safe working relationships with other workers whom they may not know, and this may affect safety at the work site. And in the course of the year, construction workers may have several employers and less than full employment. They might work an average of only 1, hours in a year while workers in manufacturing, for example, are more likely to work regular 40 hour weeks and 2, hours per year.
For a particular project, there is frequent change in the number of workers and the composition of the labour force at any one site. This change results both from the need for different skilled trades at different phases of a work project and from the high turnover of construction workers, particularly unskilled workers. At any one time, a project may include a large proportion of inexperienced, temporary and transient workers who may not be fluent in the common language.
Although construction work often must be done in teams, it is difficult to develop effective, safe teamwork under such conditions. Like the workforce, the universe of construction contractors is marked by high turnover and consists mainly of small operations.
Of the 1. The degree of contractor participation in trade organizations varies by country. This makes it difficult to identify contractors and inform them of their rights and responsibilities under pertinent health and safety or any other legislation or regulations. As in some other industries, an increasing proportion of contractors in the United States and Europe consists of individual workers hired as independent contractors by prime- or sub-contractors who employ workers.
Nor do prime contractors have any obligation to subcontractors under health and safety regulations; these regulations govern rights and responsibilities as they apply to their own employees. This arrangement gives some independence to individuals who contract for their services, but at the cost of removing a wide range of benefits. It also relieves employing contractors of the obligation to provide mandated benefits to individuals who are contractors. This private arrangement subverts public policy and has been successfully challenged in court, yet it persists and may become more of a problem for the health and safety of workers on the job, regardless of their employment relationship.
Construction workers are exposed to a wide variety of health hazards on the job. Exposure differs from trade to trade, from job to job, by the day, even by the hour. Exposure to any one hazard is typically intermittent and of short duration, but is likely to reoccur.
A worker may not only encounter the primary hazards of his or her own job, but may also be exposed as a bystander to hazards produced by those who work nearby or upwind.
This pattern of exposure is a consequence of having many employers with jobs of relatively short duration and working alongside workers in other trades that generate other hazards. The severity of each hazard depends on the concentration and duration of exposure for that particular job. Bystander exposures can be approximated if one knows the trade of workers nearby.
Hazards present for workers in particular trades are listed in table Each trade is listed below with an indication of the primary hazards to which a worker in that trade might be exposed. Exposure may occur to either supervisors or to wage earners. Hazards that are common to nearly all construction-heat, risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders and stress-are not listed.
The classifications of construction trades used here are those used in the United States. It includes the construction trades as classified in the Standard Occupational Classification system developed by the US Department of Commerce.
This system classifies the trades by the principal skills inherent in the trade. Chemical hazards are often airborne and can appear as dusts, fumes, mists, vapours or gases; thus, exposure usually occurs by inhalation, although some airborne hazards may settle on and be absorbed through the intact skin e.
Chemical hazards also occur in liquid or semi-liquid state e. Skin contact with chemicals in this state can occur in addition to possible inhalation of the vapour resulting in systemic poisoning or contact dermatitis. Chemicals might also be ingested with food or water, or might be inhaled by smoking. Elevated death rates from cancer of the lung and respiratory tree have been found among asbestos insulation workers, roofers, welders and some woodworkers.
Lead poisoning occurs among bridge rehabilitation workers and painters, and heat stress from wearing full-body protective suits among hazardous-waste clean-up workers and roofers. Alcoholism and other alcohol-related disease is more frequent than expected among construction workers. Specific occupational causes have not been identified, but it is possible that it is related to stress resulting from lack of control over employment prospects, heavy work demands or social isolation due to unstable working relationships.
Physical hazards are present in every construction project. These hazards include noise, heat and cold, radiation, vibration and barometric pressure. Construction work often must be done in extreme heat or cold, in windy, rainy, snowy, or foggy weather or at night. Ionizing and non-ionizing radiation is encountered, as are extremes of barometric pressure. The machines that have transformed construction into an increasingly mechanized activity have also made it increasingly noisy.
The sources of noise are engines of all kinds e. Noise is present on demolition projects by the very activity of demolition. It affects not only the person operating a noise-making machine, but all those close-by and not only causes noise-induced hearing loss, but also masks other sounds that are important for communication and for safety.
Pneumatic hammers, many hand tools and earth-moving and other large mobile machines also subject workers to segmental and whole-body vibration. Heat and cold hazards arise primarily because a large portion of construction work is conducted while exposed to the weather, the principal source of heat and cold hazards.
Roofers are exposed to the sun, often with no protection, and often must heat pots of tar, thus receiving both heavy radiant and convective heat loads in addition to metabolic heat from physical labour. Heavy equipment operators may sit beside a hot engine and work in an enclosed cab with windows and without ventilation. Those that work in an open cab with no roof have no protection from the sun. Workers in protective gear, such as that needed for removal of hazardous waste, may generate metabolic heat from hard physical labour and get little relief since they may be in an air-tight suit.
A shortage of potable water or shade contributes to heat stress as well. Construction workers also work in especially cold conditions during the winter, with danger of frostbite and hypothermia and risk of slipping on ice.
The principal sources of non-ionizing ultraviolet UV radiation are the sun and electric arc welding. Exposure to ionizing radiation is less common, but can occur with x-ray inspection of welds, for example, or it may occur with instruments such as flow meters that use radioactive isotopes. Lasers are becoming more common and may cause injury, especially to the eyes, if the beam is intercepted.
Those who work under water or in pressurized tunnels, in caissons or as divers are exposed to high barometric pressure. Such workers are at risk of developing a variety of conditions associated with high pressure: decompression sickness, inert gas narcosis, aseptic bone necrosis and other disorders. Strains and sprains are among the most common injuries among construction workers. These, and many chronically disabling musculoskeletal disorders such as tendinitis, carpal tunnel syndrome and low-back pain occur as a result of either traumatic injury, repetitive forceful movements, awkward postures or overexertion see figure Falls due to unstable footing, unguarded holes and slips off scaffolding see figure Figure Biological hazards are presented by exposure to infectious micro-organisms, to toxic substances of biological origin or animal attacks.
Excavation workers, for example, can develop histoplasmosis, an infection of the lung caused by a common soil fungus. Workers may also be at risk of malaria, yellow fever or Lyme disease if work is conducted in areas where these organisms and their insect vectors are prevalent.
Toxic substances of plant origin come from poison ivy, poison oak, poison sumac and nettles, all of which can cause skin eruptions. Some wood dusts are carcinogenic, and some e. Attacks by animals are rare but may occur whenever a construction project disturbs them or encroaches on their habitat. This could include wasps, hornets, fire ants, snakes and many others. Underwater workers may be at risk from attack by sharks or other fish.
Social hazards stem from the social organization of the industry. Employment is intermittent and constantly changing, and control over many aspects of employment is limited because construction activity is dependent on many factors over which construction workers have no control, such as the state of an economy or the weather.
Because of the same factors, there can be intense pressure to become more productive. Since the workforce is constantly changing, and with it the hours and location of work, and many projects require living in work camps away from home and family, construction workers may lack stable and dependable networks of social support.
Features of construction work such as heavy workload, limited control and limited social support are the very factors associated with increased stress in other industries. These hazards are not unique to any trade, but are common to all construction workers in one way or another. Evaluating either primary or bystander exposure requires knowing the tasks being done and the composition of ingredients and by-products associated with each job or task. This knowledge usually exists somewhere e.
With continually evolving computer and communications technology, it is relatively easy to obtain such information and make it available. Measuring and evaluating exposure to occupational hazards requires consideration of the novel manner in which construction workers are exposed. Conventional industrial hygiene measurements and exposure limits are based on 8-hour time-weighted averages.
But since exposures in construction are usually brief, intermittent, varied but likely to be repeated, such measures and exposure limits are not as useful as in other jobs. Exposure measurement can be based on tasks rather than shifts. With this approach, separate tasks can be identified and hazards characterized for each.
A task is a limited activity such as welding, soldering, sanding drywall, painting, installing plumbing and so on.
A composite material also called a composition material or shortened to composite, which is the common name is a material made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components. The individual components remain separate and distinct within the finished structure, differentiating composites from mixtures and solid solutions. The new material may be preferred for many reasons. Common examples include materials which are stronger, lighter, or less expensive when compared to traditional materials. More recently, researchers have also begun to actively include sensing, actuation, computation and communication into composites,  which are known as Robotic Materials.
Precast concrete is a construction product produced by casting concrete in a reusable mold or "form" which is then cured in a controlled environment, transported to the construction site and lifted into place " tilt up ". In contrast, standard concrete is poured into site-specific forms and cured on site. Precast stone is distinguished from precast concrete using a fine aggregate in the mixture, so the final product approaches the appearance of naturally occurring rock or stone. More recently expanded polystyrene is being used as the cores to precast wall panels. This is lightweight and has better thermal insulation.
To explain the difference in grounding and bonding to me, a sage mogul once used the analogy of a marriage. Then after a little while, the husband gets grounded! Perhaps nowhere in the Code is this mystery more prevalent than at I would nominate this NEC section as one of the most misunderstood and misinterpreted sections in the entire Code. Historically, this section is one of those that go through some of the most dramatic revisions from Code cycle to Code cycle. Bonding requirements are an important and unique protective method employed to increase the safety of the users of bodies of water such as pools, spas, and hot tubs. Bonding connects the conductive elements of the pool structure, nearby metallic objects, and electrical equipment enclosures together.
Flying Magazine. Sty Lut Mar Kwi Maj Cze Lip
Construction workers build, repair, maintain, renovate, modify and demolish houses, office buildings, temples, factories, hospitals, roads, bridges, tunnels, stadiums, docks, airports and more. The International Labour Organization ILO classifies the construction industry as government and private-sector firms erecting buildings for habitation or for commercial purposes and public works such as roads, bridges, tunnels, dams or airports. In the United States and some other countries, construction workers also clean hazardous waste sites.
Divided into 5 sections, the enclosed chapters explore the EU technology and innovation policy in regards to security, industrial competitiveness and military capabilities. While the idea of pooling defense research efforts and programmes in Europe is not new, the establishment of institutions like the European Defense Agency EDA are a major step into institutionalizing European agencies involvement in supporting defense technology research. It is against this backdrop of policy developments that this book is positioned, in addition to addressing some of the political, economic, industrial and philosophical questions that arise. Featuring contributions from a variety of academic fields and industries, this book will be of interest to scholars, researchers, students and policy makers in the fields of security policy, international relations, innovation, European studies and military studies. Gallen, funded by a Swiss confederation scholarship. His research interests include security research and industrial policy, innovation policy, and the relationship between defence and security. His main research interests are European integration theory, the political economy of EU armaments policy, and EU space policy militarisation. He is co-editor with N. Karampekios of the volume Arming Europe? Golemis of the volume Poulantzas Today Nissos, ; in Greek. Elias G.
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Я не рискнул попросить у кого-нибудь помощи. Николь была глубоко тронута. - Как же мне отблагодарить. - Не попадись, - ухмыльнулся Макс, - помереть я хочу не больше, чем. Да, кстати, - добавил он, вручая Николь электронное читающее устройство, с помощью которого она могла читать книжные диски, - надеюсь, что чтиво тебе подойдет.
Справочники по свиноводству и цыплячьим болезням, конечно, не столь занимательны, как романы твоего отца, но я не хотел привлекать к себе внимание, забирая из книжного магазина непривычный груз. Николь пересекла комнату и поцеловала его в щеку.
Лишь через несколько часов Патрик смог составить разумное представление о том, что произошло после того, как исследовательский отряд оставил музейную комнату. Наи еще была в шоке от пережитого, Роберт не мог говорить более минуты, не разразившись слезами, а дети и Бенджи постоянно прерывали рассказ, часто без всякого смысла.
Поначалу Патрик уяснил только главное: к людям пришли октопауки и похитили Элли, прихватив птиц, манно-дыни и кусок ватной сети. Неоднократно повторив вопросы, Патрик сумел понять, как все случилось.
Примерно через час после того, как пятеро исследователей отправились в путь, - должно быть, когда Ричард, Патрик и другие спустились на платформу, - все оставшиеся в комнате услышали за дверью шорох металлических щеток.
Было бы удобно, - смущенно произнес Ричард. - Загрузишь пищу, и работай, пока желудок не скомандует заполнить. - А вкусней этой каши еще не было, - промолвил маленький Кеплер с другого конца стола.
Смотри, здесь, должно быть, есть и садовники, - сказал Ричард, - которые подстригают растительность вокруг тропы несколько раз в неделю. Видишь, как ровно обрезаны эти кусты и деревья. они ни на йоту не заходят в пространство над нашей головой.
Не так, как здесь, на "морской звезде", но тем не менее. Мы полагаем, что присмотр и контроль являются необходимым условием совместной жизни. - Второй фактор, пожалуй, важнее.
Тебе. Николь снова закрыла. "Где .