This year marks the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 mission to the moon. General Magnaplate was part of the Apollo program's success from the beginning, both on the ground innovating surface coatings for space exploration and, later, on the moon protecting the drill tubes that sampled the moon's soil and rocks. Since our founding in , General Magnaplate has been creating synergistic coatings that withstand the extreme conditions that man and machine encounter in aerospace environments as evidenced by these space-exploration milestones:. Today, General Magnaplate provides many commercial airframe and aerospace companies, as well as commercial spacecraft, airline and military companies with REACH-compliant synergistic coatings that ensure parts withstand extreme conditions. The metal components used in space systems and other aerospace applications must be able to withstand corrosion, friction, thermal and other threats.
Dear readers! Our articles talk about typical ways to solve the issue of renting industrial premises, but each case is unique.
If you want to know how to solve your particular problem, please contact the online consultant form on the right or call the numbers on the website. It is fast and free!
- Guide to Manufacturing Processes for Plastics
- Looking for other ways to read this?
- Materials processing
- Modern Production Methods for Titanium Alloys: A Review
- Adding Fabrication Capabilities: Additive Manufacturing for Production Parts
- Looking for other ways to read this?
- Modern Production Methods for Titanium Alloys: A Review
- Coatings Technology Blog
- What Are the Most Common Metal Fabrication Processes and What Are the Applications?
Guide to Manufacturing Processes for PlasticsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: How to Make Prepreg Carbon Fibre Parts (XPREG® XC110)
Paint is a term used to describe a number of substances that consist of a pigment suspended in a liquid or paste vehicle such as oil or water.
With a brush, a roller, or a spray gun, paint is applied in a thin coat to various surfaces such as wood, metal, or stone.
Although its primary purpose is to protect the surface to which it is applied, paint also provides decoration. Samples of the first known paintings, made between 20, and 25, years ago, survive in caves in France and Spain. Primitive paintings tended to depict humans and animals, and diagrams have also been found. Early artists relied on easily available natural substances to make paint, such as natural earth pigments, charcoal, berry juice, lard, blood, and milkweed sap.
Later, the ancient Chinese, Egyptians, Hebrews, Greeks, and Romans used more sophisticated materials to produce paints for limited decoration, such as painting walls. Oils were used as varnishes, and pigments such as yellow and red ochres, chalk, arsenic sulfide yellow, and malachite green were mixed with binders such as gum arabic, lime, egg albumen, and beeswax.
Paint was first used as a protective coating by the Egyptians and Hebrews, who applied pitches and balsams to the exposed wood of their ships. During the Middle Ages, some inland wood also received protective coatings of paint, but due to the scarcity of paint, this practice was generally limited to store fronts and signs. Around the same time, artists began to boil resin with oil to obtain highly miscible mixable paints, and artists of the fifteenth century were the first to add drying oils to paint, thereby hastening evaporation.
They also adopted a new solvent, linseed oil, which remained the most commonly used solvent until synthetics replaced it during the twentieth century. In Boston around , Thomas Child built the earliest American paint mill, a granite trough within which a 1. The first paint patent was issued for a product that improved whitewash, a water-slaked lime often used during the early days of the United States.
In D. Flinn obtained a patent for a water-based paint that also contained zinc oxide, potassium hydroxide, resin, milk, and lin-seed oil. The first commercial paint mills replaced Child's granite ball with a buhrstone wheel, but these mills continued the practice of grinding only pigment individual customers would then blend it with a vehicle at home.
It wasn't until that manufacturers began mixing the vehicle and the pigment for consumers. The twentieth century has seen the most changes in paint composition and manufacture. Today, synthetic pigments and stabilizers are commonly used to mass produce uniform batches of paint. New synthetic vehicles developed from polymers such as polyurethane and styrene-butadene emerged during the s. Alkyd resins were synthesized, and they have dominated production since.
Before , pigment was ground with stone mills, and these were later replaced by steel balls. Today, sand mills and high-speed dispersion mixers are used to grind easily dispersible pigments. Perhaps the greatest paint-related advancement has been its proliferation. While some wooden houses, stores, bridges, and signs The first step in making paint involves mixing the pigment with resin, solvents, and additives to form a paste.
If the paint is to be for industrial use, it usually is then routed into a sand mill, a large cylinder that agitates tiny particles of sand or silica to grind the pigment particles, making them smaller and dispersing them throughout the mixture.
In contrast, most commercial-use point is processed in a high-speed dispersion tank, in which a circular, toothed blade attached to a rotating shaft agitates the mixture and blends the pigment into the solvent. Today, paints are used for interior and exterior housepainting, boats, automobiles, planes, appliances, furniture, and many other places where protection and appeal are desired.
A paint is composed of pigments, solvents, resins, and various additives. The pigments give the paint color; solvents make it easier to apply; resins help it dry; and additives serve as everything from fillers to antifungicidal agents. Hundreds of different pigments, both natural and synthetic, exist. The basic white pigment is titanium dioxide, selected for its excellent concealing properties, and black pigment is commonly made from carbon black. Other pigments used to make paint include iron oxide and cadmium sulfide for reds, metallic salts for yellows and oranges, and iron blue and chrome yellows for blues and greens.
Solvents are various low viscosity, volatile liquids. They include petroleum mineral spirits and aromatic solvents such as benzol, alcohols, esters, ketones, and acetone. The natural resins most commonly used are lin-seed, coconut, and soybean oil, while alkyds, acrylics, epoxies, and polyurethanes number among the most popular synthetic resins.
Additives serve many purposes. Some, like calcium carbonate and aluminum silicate, are simply fillers that give the paint body and substance without changing its properties. Other additives produce certain desired characteristics Paint canning is a completely automated process. For the standard 8 pint paint can available to consumers, empty cans are first rolled horizontally onto labels, then set upright so that the point can be pumped into them.
One machine places lids onto the filled cans while a second machine presses on the lids to seal the cons. From wire that is fed into it from coils, a bailometer cuts and shapes the handles before hooking them into holes precut in the cans.
Paint is generally custom-made to fit the needs of industrial customers. For example, one might be especially interested in a fast-drying paint, while another might desire a paint that supplies good coverage over a long lifetime. Paint intended for the consumer can also be custom-made.
Paint manufacturers provide such a wide range of colors that it is impossible to keep large quantities of each on hand. To meet a request for "aquamarine," "canary yellow," or "maroon," the manufacturer will select a base that is appropriate for the deepness of color required. Pastel paint bases will have high amounts of titanium dioxide, the white pigment, while darker tones will have less.
Then, according to a predetermined formula, the manufacturer can introduce various pigments from calibrated cylinders to obtain the proper color. Paint manufacturers utilize an extensive array of quality control measures. The ingredients and the manufacturing process undergo stringent tests, and the finished product is checked to insure that it is of high quality. A finished paint is inspected for its density, fineness of grind, dispersion, and viscosity. Paint is then applied to a surface and studied for bleed resistance, rate of drying, and texture.
In terms of the paint's aesthetic components, color is checked by an experienced observer and by spectral analysis to see if it matches a standard desired color. Resistance of the color to fading caused by the elements is determined by exposing a portion of a painted surface to an arc light and comparing the amount of fading to a painted surface that was not so exposed.
The paint's hiding power is measured by painting it over a black surface and a white surface. The ratio of coverage on the black surface to coverage on the white surface is then determined, with. Gloss is measured by determining the amount of reflected light given off a painted surface.
Tests to measure the paint's more functional qualities include one for mar resistance, which entails scratching or abrading a dried coat of paint. Adhesion is tested by making a crosshatch, calibrated to. A piece of tape is applied to the crosshatch, then pulled off; good paint will remain on the surface. Scrubbability is tested by a machine that rubs a soapy brush over the paint's surface.
A system also exists to rate settling. An excellent paint can sit for six months with no settling and rate a ten. Poor paint, however, will settle into an immiscible lump of pigment on the bottom of the can and rate a zero. Weathering is tested by exposing the paint to outdoor conditions. Artificial weathering exposes a painted surface to sun, water, extreme temperature, humidity, or sulfuric gases. Fire retardancy is checked by burning the paint and determining its weight loss.
If the amount lost is more than 10 percent, the paint is not considered fire-resistant. A recent regulation California Rule 66 concerning the emission of volatile organic compounds VOCs affects the paint industry, especially manufacturers of industrial oil-based paints. It is estimated that all coatings, including stains and varnishes, are responsible for 1.
The new regulation permits each liter of paint to contain no more than grams 8. Paint manufacturers can replace the solvents with pigment, fillers, or other solids inherent to the basic paint formula. This method produces thicker paints that are harder to apply, and it is not yet known if such paints are long lasting. Other solutions include using paint powder coatings that use no solvents, applying paint in closed systems from which VOCs can be retrieved, using water as a solvent, or using acrylics that dry under ultraviolet light or heat.
A consumer with some unused paint on hand can return it to the point of purchase for proper treatment. A large paint manufacturer will have an in-house wastewater treatment facility that treats all liquids generated on-site, even storm water run-off. The facility is monitored 24 hours a day, and the Environmental Protection Agency EPA does a periodic records and systems check of all paint facilities. The liquid portion of the waste is treated on-site to the standards of the local publicly owned wastewater treatment facility; it can be used to make low-quality paint.
Latex sludge can be retrieved and used as fillers in other industrial products. Waste solvents can be recovered and used as fuels for other industries. A clean paint container can be reused or sent to the local landfill. Flick, Ernest W. Handbook of Paint Raw Materials, 2nd ed. Noyes Data Corp. Martens, Charles R. Emulsion and Water-Soluble Paints and Coatings. Reinhold Publishing Company, Morgans, W.
Outlines of Paint Technology, 3rd ed. The Paints and Coatings Industry. Business Trend Analysts, Turner, G. Weismantel, Guy E. Paint Handbook. McGraw-Hill, Levinson, Nancy.
January, , pp.
Titanium alloys are advanced structural materials for numerous key engineering applications in medicine implants , aerospace, marine structures, and many other areas. The novel aspects of application potential for titanium alloys are as a result of their unique properties such as high corrosion resistance, high specific strength, low elastic modulus, high elasticity, and high hardness. This chapter examines the modern methods for production of titanium alloys. The goal of this chapter is to show the process engineers the current methods for production of titanium alloys necessary for modern applications. Titanium Ti is a lustrous metal with a silver color.
Looking for other ways to read this?
What Is the Metal Fabrication Process? In every household and working environment, metal plays a major role in how people operate. Metal fabrication is the process of turning raw metals into pre-made shapes for assembly use. For example, the panels that comprise the frame of an automobile are made through custom metal fabrication processes, which are usually performed at a fabrication facility and then sent to an auto assembly plant.
Materials processing , the series of operations that transforms industrial materials from a raw-material state into finished parts or products. Materials processing by hand is as old as civilization; mechanization began with the Industrial Revolution of the 18th century, and in the early 19th century the basic machines for forming, shaping, and cutting were developed, principally in England. Since then, materials-processing methods, techniques, and machinery have grown in variety and number. The cycle of manufacturing processes that converts materials into parts and products starts immediately after the raw materials are either extracted from minerals or produced from basic chemicals or natural substances. Metallic raw materials are usually produced in two steps. First, the crude ore is processed to increase the concentration of the desired metal; this is called beneficiation. Typical beneficiation processes include crushing, roasting, magnetic separation, flotation , and leaching.
Fabrication is the process used to manufacture steelwork components that will, when assembled and joined, form a complete frame. The frame generally uses readily available standard sections that are purchased from the steelmaker or steel stockholder, together with such items as protective coatings and bolts from other specialist suppliers. Although a wide range of section shapes and sizes are produced, the designer may find that the required section size is not available. In this case, built-up girders may be fabricated from plate. Sections and plate girders may also be strengthened by stiffening the web or flanges depending upon the load to be carried. The accuracy of the computer generated details being transmitted directly to the computer aided manufacturing CAM machinery increases the quality standards of production. The fact that machinery has taken over from the tape measure means that the frame is produced to high quality standards which are reflected in the speed and accuracy of steel erection on site. This results in significant benefits both to the client and main contractor. There are a number of general "technical" factors to consider in terms of design for economic fabrication that apply to most building projects.
Modern Production Methods for Titanium Alloys: A Review
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Materials as a field is most commonly represented by ceramics, metals, and polymers.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. As described in chapter 2 , the primary purposes of high-temperature structural coatings are to enable high temperature components to operate at even higher temperatures, to improve component durability, and to allow use of a broader variety of fuels in land-based and marine-based engines. Although high-temperature coatings protect the substrate, the demarcation between coating and substrate either metal or nonmetal is becoming increasingly blurred. The demanding requirements of high-temperature service in both isothermal and cyclic modes have recast the way researchers think about coated structures. These structures can be considered part of a continuum; at the limit the coating will be a progressive modification of the substrate and therefore must be concurrently designed with the substrate. Table summarizes the relationship between coating functions and coating characteristics. There are essentially two types of high-temperature coatings. The second type is an overlay coating in which material is deposited at the surface of the substrate.
Adding Fabrication Capabilities: Additive Manufacturing for Production Parts
ASTM's paint and related coating standards are instrumental in specifying and evaluating the physical and chemical properties of various paints and coatings that are applied to certain bulk materials to improve their surface properties. Guides are also provided for the proper methods of applying these coatings, which also include enamels, varnishes, electroplatings, pigments, and solvents. These paint and related coating standards help paint manufacturers and end-users in the appropriate testing and application procedures for the coating of their concern. Additive Manufacturing Standards. Cement Standards and Concrete Standards. Fire Standards and Flammability Standards. Geotechnical Engineering Standards. Consumer Product Evaluation Standards. Corrosion Standards and Wear Standards.
Looking for other ways to read this?
Sergey N. Grigoriev 1 , Sergey V. Received: 21 March Accepted: 28 April For mechanical machining the quality of cutting-tool materials is one of the most significant issues that need to be addressed. Enhancement of cutting tool performance may be achieved through the use of modern composition ceramic cutting tools This may be enabled through surface treatment, and also hot pressing and spark plasma sintering — the two main processes used for manufacturing such tools. In this article the advantages and disadvantages of the technologies and processes involved are analyzed and compared to identify the most appropriate methods for creating ceramic cutting-tools. In parallel the latest improvements in ceramic cutting-tool materials are reviewed. The paper shows that the choice of ceramic cutting tools is a quite complex process with a number of important factors to be taken into account.
Modern Production Methods for Titanium Alloys: A Review
Mill scale. Laser scale. Heat-treat scale.
A coating is a covering that is applied to the surface of an object, usually referred to as the substrate. The purpose of applying the coating may be decorative, functional, or both. The coating itself may be an all-over coating, completely covering the substrate, or it may only cover parts of the substrate. An example of all of these types of coating is a product label on many drinks bottles- one side has an all-over functional coating the adhesive and the other side has one or more decorative coatings in an appropriate pattern the printing to form the words and images.
Coatings Technology Blog
Paint is the most commonly used material to protect steel. Paint systems for steel structures have developed over the years to comply with industrial environmental legislation and in response to demands from bridge and building owners for improved durability performance.
What Are the Most Common Metal Fabrication Processes and What Are the Applications?
Plastics are the most common materials for producing end-use parts and products, for everything from consumer products to medical devices. Plastics are a versatile category of materials, with thousands of polymer options, each with their own specific mechanical properties. But how are plastic parts made? For any designer and engineer working in product development, it is critical to be familiar with the manufacturing options available today and the new developments that signal how parts will be made tomorrow.