Whining like a regular passenger jet, the twin-hulled catamaran of an airplane passed by owner Richard Branson, who stood clapping in an aviator jacket on the pavement. WhiteKnightTwo rumbled along and lifted off, getting ready to climb to an altitude of 50, feet. From that height, the jet would release SpaceShipTwo; its two pilots would fire the engines and boost the craft into space. A contrail smoked over the folds of the mountains as the spaceship flew up and up and up.
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- The Best Place to Make Undersea Cables Might Be ... in Space
- How to Build a Space Communication System Out of Lasers
- Understanding Plenum and other NEC Cable Ratings
- Structured Cabling Specifications and Standards
- What is 5G? The business guide to next-generation wireless technology
SatellitesVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: GPD General Purpose Droid Simulation Demo
When you run cable through any building you first need to consider plenum spaces. Plenum spaces are the open spaces above the ceiling or below the floor that are used for air circulation.
Technically, any ductwork is considered a plenum space too. These spaces are important for air circulation in any building, but they also bring some problems if you ever have a fire because of the high oxygen content and lack of fire barriers.
Using untreated cables in plenum spaces can spread the fire to other areas very quickly and spread noxious smoke throughout the building. Any cable that you run through plenum spaces must be plenum rated, even wiring used for information transfer, like Cat5 wiring. Plenum spaces provide two problems if there is ever a fire. First, by necessity plenum spaces are loaded with fresh oxygen. A small, smoldering fire can really take off if it breaks into the plenum space.
The second issue is that the air in the plenum space is forced throughout the whole building. Any smoke or fumes that get released into the plenum are pumped all over the rest of the building. If you have ever seen regular plastics burn, you understand why the cables in a plenum need special treatment. Most plastic burns quickly and lets off plumes of thick dirty toxic black smoke.
Unrated cables should never be used in any kind of construction, especially in a plenum. If they catch fire, they can actually spread the fire to other parts of the building. Any cables installed in a plenum space must be plenum rated.
The jacket is designed to 1 hinder the progression of flame and 2 not release the harmful smoke that normally accompanies any type of burning plastic. We use Teflon or PTFE coated wires in our plenum network cables to make sure that the cables are safe and heat-resistant.
Plenum cables are the highest standard and can safely be substituted for any other cable type such as riser, CM, CL2 or CL3 cables. What is CMP rated Cable? Or CMR rated cable? What do these acronyms mean and why do they matter? Did you know that there are at least 16 ratings or levels used to designate what a cable is suitable for? Whether you're planning out a basic in-wall residential installation or a commercial job that involves plenum spaces, it pays to know what different acronyms mean and where you should use them.
This guide is intended to serve as a quick reference to the different levels and classifications of cables and their associated acronyms. It is worth noting that cables of a higher rating can generally be used as substitutes for cables of a lower rating, however the reverse is not true.
Generally it goes up from residential cable to commercial cable, riser cable, and plenum cable, with different levels of cable within each tier. More about NEC cable ratings. Underwriter Laboratories UL is the de facto standard for making sure that your cables meet or exceed all of the required specifications. UL can simply test your cable, or they can certify the factory where it is made and issue a UL number that can be printed on the cable with the UL trademark.
Unfortunately there are some companies that have been advertising cables as plenum without meeting the requirements. This will tell you who manufacturers the cable and what types of cable they can produce. See our UL listing. Real plenum cable will usually have the number printed right on the cable jacket. We offer a variety of UL certified plenum cables. From the data center to the conference room we can provide the network, data, video and audio cables that you need to ensure that your installations are safe and up to code.
Download W Credit Application. View cart. What is Plenum Cable? Plenum ft. Next article How to get Gigabit Speeds. Sign up to get spam Just kidding. Email address. Sign Up. Added to your cart:. Helena St. Lucia St. Martin St. Shipping Methods. Plenum Cat5e. Plenum Siamese. Plenum HDMI.
With mobility and flexibility becoming increasingly important to your business and its employees, have you taken time to consider what sort of network best suits your needs? Should you continue to rely upon a wired network, or is it time to go wireless? The WiFi vs ethernet discussion is one had more often than you might expect. Both wired and wireless networks come with pros and cons for your business, but understanding the differences will help you make the right decision. When it comes to determining which of these networks for business is better, the conversation has to start with you. I'm certain your workplace already has a network in place.
The Best Place to Make Undersea Cables Might Be ... in Space
The most important promise made by the proprietors of 5G wireless technology -- the telecommunications service providers, the transmission equipment makers, the antenna manufacturers, and even the server manufacturers -- is this: Once all of 5G's components are fully deployed and operational, you will not need any kind of wire or cable to deliver communications or even entertainment service to your mobile device, to any of your fixed devices HDTV, security system, smart appliances , or to your automobile. If everything works, 5G would be the optimum solution to the classic "last mile" problem: Delivering complete digital connectivity from the tip of the carrier network to the customer, without drilling another hole through the wall. Also: Should 5G be in your IT budget? The "if" in that previous sentence remains colossal. The whole point of "Gs" in wireless standards, originally, was to emphasize the ease of transition between one wireless system of delivery and a newer one -- or at least make that transition seem reasonably pain-free.
How to Build a Space Communication System Out of Lasers
Satellites by Chris Woodford. Last updated: November 16, E yes in the sky, space mirrors bouncing phone calls round Earth, heavenly compasses helping us home—these are just three of the things that satellites do for us. When you gaze through the clouds on a brilliant blue day, you might catch sight of a plane or two leaving vapor trails in its wake.
Bigbelly transforms public space waste management with a cloud-connected system. Stations communicate real-time status to an actionable web-based software. Cities can take advantage of shared space in the smart waste stations to deploy other technologies without adding clutter in dense urban areas. Our core infrastructure has a proven form factor and provides a multi-purpose platform capable of hosting smart city technologies and wireless equipment in plain sight and out of the public eye. City-wide deployments enhance the urban experience without negative aesthetic impact. Communities and solution providers share the challenge of how and where to deploy smart solutions and communications infrastructure in the public right-of-way without additional clutter or negative aesthetic impact. In addition to modernizing a core city service, it is optimal for hosting additional technologies. Discover how cities transform a core city service and leverage a multi-purpose platform to beautify their public spaces. As a result, this ends up being a location where we can extend that site to allow other equipment to be deployed right there at that location.
Understanding Plenum and other NEC Cable Ratings
When you run cable through any building you first need to consider plenum spaces. Plenum spaces are the open spaces above the ceiling or below the floor that are used for air circulation. Technically, any ductwork is considered a plenum space too.
Within seconds, the intended recipient—an observatory in New Mexico—locked onto the beam of infrared light, invisible to the naked eye. Bolden had, of course, recorded the video on Earth. NASA had first beamed the video up via laser link to the spacecraft, which beamed it right back down. It was—and still is—the furthest anyone has ever beamed an infrared laser message. But engineers at NASA, the European Space Agency, and private companies like Airbus are preparing more ambitious laser communications projects in the next few years. They think that lasers—not radio—are the future of space data. If they have their way, the data that creates your snowstorm forecasts and Jupiter photos will rain down from the sky in the form of infrared light. Right now, climate-monitoring satellites, the International Space Station, and space-faring probes like Juno all send and receive information in the form of radio signals. But these spacecraft can only use a limited range of government-controlled radio frequencies. For the amount of satellite and space imagery that scientists want, they need more data delivery options, says engineer Frank Heine of Airbus-owned company Tesat-Spacecom. Heine is gunning for infrared lasers.
Structured Cabling Specifications and Standards
Buildings account for almost half of total primary energy use and related greenhouse emissions worldwide. Although current energy systems are improving, they still fall disappointingly short of meeting acceptable limits for efficiency. Well-trained energy auditors are essential to the success of building energy efficiency programs—and Energy Audit of Building Systems: An Engineering Approach, Second Edition updates a bestselling guide to helping them improve their craft. This book outlines a systematic, proven strategy to employ analysis methods to assess the effectiveness of a wide range of technologies and techniques that can save energy and reduce operating costs in residential and commercial buildings. Useful to auditors, managers, and students of energy systems, material is organized into 17 self-contained chapters, each detailing a specific building subsystem or energy efficiency technology. Rooted in established engineering principles, this volume:. Explores state-of-the-art techniques and technologies to reduce energy consumption in buildings. Lays out innovative energy efficiency technologies and strategies, as well as more established methods, to estimate energy savings from conservation measures.
What is 5G? The business guide to next-generation wireless technology
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Like the Fates pinching the thread of life, a robotic arm unspooled a thin copper wire for a self-assembling satellite dish. Nearby, a plastic bar, carved as a lattice to shrink its weight, stretched across the ceiling, demonstrating how a 3D printer might eventually crank out rods for massive solar panels. Designed for use in space, the idea is that a satellite would print and assemble its unwieldy power supply once in orbit, rather than bringing it along from Earth. But perhaps the most valuable product of Made in Space, at least anytime soon, lay unassuming on a nearby table: a coil of wires, stuffed inside a plastic bag, that looked like it should plug into one of the fancy 3D printers or robots around it.
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire , radio , optical or other electromagnetic systems. It is transmitted through a transmission medium , such as over physical media, for example, over electrical cable , or via electromagnetic radiation through space such as radio or light. Since the Latin term communicatio is considered the social process of information exchange, the term telecommunications is often used in its plural form because it involves many different technologies.
Single-throw knife switches, molded-case switches, switches with butt contacts, and circuit breakers used as switches shall be connected so that the terminals supplying the load are deenergized when the switch is in the open position. However, blades and terminals supplying the load of a switch may be energized when the switch is in the open position where the switch is connected to circuits or equipment inherently capable of providing a backfeed source of power.
Commercial use of space is the provision of goods or services of commercial value by using equipment sent into Earth orbit or outer space. Examples of the commercial use of space include satellite navigation , satellite television and commercial satellite imagery.