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- Chemicals & Dyes Used in the Textile Industry
- These new textile dyeing methods could make fashion more sustainable
- Thermochromism: The Effects of Temperature on Pigments and Dyes
- Chemicals & Dyes Used in the Textile Industry
- Dye Application, Manufacture of Dye Intermediates and Dyes
- Biological growth and synthetic fabrication of structurally colored materials
Chemicals & Dyes Used in the Textile IndustryVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: A brief history of the invention of modern color - Susan Clark - TEDxBasel
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Dyes—coloring materials that are applied as a solution and cling to whatever they are applied to e. They can also be used as identifiers, like the purple dye that some countries use to mark voters' fingers during an election or the wool dyes that sheep herders use to mark the sheep in their flocks. Fluorescent brightening dyes improve the appearance of textiles and paper.
Contrast agents and fluorescent dyes make selected cells and organs stand out for biological and medical imaging. Dye-based lasers are not only powerful, but they also emit laser light over a range of wavelengths, producing "tunable" laser beams for manufacturing, medical applications, astronomical research, and spectroscopy. Dye laser beams can even be used to vaporize tattoo inks. Pigments are used for artists' paints, car finishes, and light-reflecting signs. They are insoluble materials that have to be mixed with binders or vehicles to attach them to a substrate.
Pigments are often derived from minerals, but they can also be made synthetically. Pigments are used in paints, inks, plastics, fabrics, cosmetics, and food, to name a few examples. They are often better than dyes at keeping their color for many centuries and for withstanding high heat, intense light, and exposure to weather or chemical agents. Inks are liquids or pastes that contain dyes or pigments, and they are used for writing pens, printing, and tattoos. Anti-counterfeiting inks, including gel inks, some fountain pen inks, and inks used for paper currency, react with the cellulose in paper to produce a permanent color change.
Although they are not strictly inks, liquids used for inkjet technologies like microcircuitry fabrication and 3D printing benefit from much of the same research used to develop more conventional inks: consistency and flow properties, electrostatic properties, adhesion to a substrate, resistance to bleeding and spreading, solvent compatibility properties, and resolution and stability of the resulting patterns or 3D structures.
The field of 3D printing materials has largely been the domain of experimenters and do-it-yourselfers, but the demand for reliable commercial products is increasing. Companies now use this method for small- and medium-scale production of customized machine parts, gourmet food items, and even customized artificial body parts. However, major manufacturing companies are looking into 3D printing for large-scale production of machine parts, toys, and consumer electronics.
Cutting-edge industries are currently using 3D printing for making prototype reactors and systems, including "printing" living cells onto a substrate for use in drug discovery research. Chemists who work with dyes, pigments, and inks develop new formulations that use less expensive ingredients or hold their colors better. They may develop new formulations that avoid heavy metals and volatile organic compounds or that use sustainable resources like vegetable oils. They may also develop new products with better flow properties, greater stability, or better interactions with the materials with which they come into contact.
Museum workers analyze the pigments and dyes in historical artifacts and works of art to authenticate them and identify their age and place of origin. These workers look for materials that are compatible with older dyes and pigments to preserve and restore valuable objects.
Forensic chemists analyze evidence, including car paint or cosmetics residues, for criminal or civil court cases. Dye, pigment, and ink chemists require a solid background in chemistry or a related scientific field.
Research and academic positions usually require a Ph. Research assistants and technicians may decide to stop with a bachelor's or master's degree, or they may return to school to earn a doctorate after gaining some work experience. Instrument specialists, chemical engineers, and persons working in marketing or customer service may have master's degrees. Some managerial and administrative jobs may require master's degrees, but research director positions generally require a science Ph.
Dye, pigment, and ink chemists often work in academic, industrial, or government laboratories. They generally work regular hours, unless an experiment or a project deadline requires working overtime. Industrial chemists may work in factories or production plants. They may travel to customer sites to advise and train customers or to troubleshoot processes or equipment. Academic chemists may teach classes and confer with students during office hours, as well as supervise student researchers.
Environmental chemists may work in factory settings or in the field, collecting and analyzing samples to monitor levels of chemicals released into the air or water. They may also work with production plants to improve manufacturing processes and monitor compliance with regulations.
Chemists in any of these areas may present their work at conferences and symposia, and they may publish their work in scientific journals or general-audience publications. They or their employers may apply for patents on new ingredients, formulations, or applications. Dye, pigment, and ink chemistry work takes many forms.
Each type of job function requires its own set of skills, and no one position requires a person to be good at everything. Careers in dyes, pigments, and inks offer a wide variety of entry points, including basic or applied research, product development, customer support, product quality control, health and safety, environmental regulatory compliance, and sustainable manufacturing practices.
Analytical chemists in this field may work with museums and universities to authenticate historical artifacts or works of art, or they may analyze evidence for a variety of law enforcement agencies. Formulations chemists may work in industrial or academic labs to develop new food colorings, inks that are not easily counterfeited, or the latest colors for fashion, cars, and home decorating. Chemists in industrial, academic, or government laboratories may develop new liquids for fabricating circuit boards using inkjet technology or polymers that form artificial organs using 3D printing techniques.
Students and recent graduates may pursue internships in industrial, academic, or government laboratories to see if this field is a good fit and to help with deciding whether to pursue a graduate degree. Program management or administration is an option for experienced chemists. As with any manufacturing sector, careers in public policy and government affairs are an option, as well as legal careers in patent law and intellectual property.
Chemists with experience in this industry sector may go into sales and marketing. Global demand for pigments is expected to grow slowly, but steadily, through at least The largest market for pigments is the construction industry, which uses them for paints, varnishes, plastics, and construction materials.
Ceresana, The demand for magazines and printed packaging will drive a strong demand for printing inks, but inks are usually purchased in the same countries that produce the final products. Demand from the textile and paper industries is not expected to be as strong.
The greatest opportunities are expected to arise in the areas between raw pigments and the final products, including dispersants, quality control, additives, and surface treatments. Ceresana, ; Houlton, Niche markets are expected to thrive, including photochromic colorants, medical dyes, and infrared dyes for applications including security markings.
Emerging markets are also creating new opportunities; for example, European, African, and Asian hair all take up hair dyes differently, and products must be tailored for the needs of these diverse customers. Houlton, High-tech applications, including inkjet microfabrication and 3D printing, are largely in the developmental stage. Most jobs are expected to be in the research field, although opportunities in product development may increase as these methods are more widely applied for commercial products.
Product development research requires a practical frame of mind and close attention to customer needs, manufacturing processes and economics, and regulatory restrictions. Chemists may work closely with plant engineers, patent lawyers, and customers to ensure that new products are not only innovative but are useful, affordable, safe, and non-polluting. Chemists who develop products for food or medical applications must comply with regulations specific to these areas and may collaborate with biomedical researchers.
Chemists who work with consumer products must be aware of how their pigments and dyes affect other properties of a product, including flavors, allergic reactions, material strength, and tendency to corrode or oxidize. They must take consumer behaviors into account, including common laundry practices, cooking practices, and color trends in cosmetics, fashion, or automotive finishes. Technology applications like laser dyes and inkjet fabrication require finding new materials that not only function well as finished products but are amenable to existing production techniques.
Newer technologies are still in the very early stages, and entrepreneurial chemists are needed to develop research model systems into commercial products. Because this is a global industry and much of the demand is in rapidly developing markets, it is worthwhile to consider working for companies outside the United States.
Global demand for pigments is expected to grow slowly, but steadily, through at least , with the largest market for pigments being the construction industry. Expect to see strong demand for printing inks for magazines and printed packaging, but less demand from the textile and paper industries. Niche markets are expected to thrive, and emerging markets are also creating new opportunities. Because high-tech applications are largely in the developmental stage, most jobs are expected to be in the research field, although opportunities in product development may increase.
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Awards Recognizing and celebrating excellence in chemistry and celebrate your achievements. Funding Funding to support the advancement of the chemical sciences through research projects. Dyes, Pigments and Inks. Typical work duties include the following: Synthesize and characterize new products, components, and formulations Develop new applications for existing products Develop and provide marketing support for commercial products Provide customer support and troubleshooting assistance in the application of commercial products Study and improve health, safety, and environmental properties Analyze pigments and dyes from historical artifacts, works of art, or crime scene evidence Teach courses and train students Communicate with funding agencies, regulatory agencies, and the general public.
Related Fields. Synthetic chemistry Analytical chemistry Materials science Chemistry in the arts Chemical engineering Forensic chemistry. Formulations chemistry Environmental chemistry Product development and support Health and Safety Organic chemistry Polymer chemistry. Licenses are not generally required for dye, pigment, and ink chemists. Ceresana, The demand for magazines and printed packaging will drive a strong demand for printing inks, but inks are usually purchased in the same countries that produce the final products.
Ceresana, ; Houlton, Niche markets are expected to thrive, including photochromic colorants, medical dyes, and infrared dyes for applications including security markings. Houlton, High-tech applications, including inkjet microfabrication and 3D printing, are largely in the developmental stage.
Create citation alert. Buy this article in print. Journal RSS feed. Sign up for new issue notifications. Nature's light manipulation strategies—in particular those at the origin of bright iridescent colors—have fascinated humans for centuries. In recent decades, insights into the fundamental concepts and physics underlying biological light-matter interactions have enabled a cascade of attempts to copy nature's optical strategies in synthetic structurally colored materials.
These new textile dyeing methods could make fashion more sustainable
Food packaging technology is primarily concerned with packaging activities regarding protection of food products from biological, physical or chemical agents. With the growth of modern civilization, people are getting more concerned with hygiene and quality of the food. As a result of that, food packaging is gradually setting up its stand to contend with other industries. The importance of food packaging hardly needs emphasizing since only a handful of foods are sold in an unpackaged state. Packaging is the science, art, and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use.
Thermochromism: The Effects of Temperature on Pigments and Dyes
It originated in India and has evolved there over thousands of years. It is a holistic healing science. Ayurvedic practice involves the use of medications that typically contain herbs, metals, minerals, or other materials. Now-a-days people are attracted more towards Ayurvedic medicines as the allopathic medicines are costlier and have side effects. There is more and more scientific research being conducted in our country for treatment of various diseases by Ayurvedic and herbal therapy. Research on medicinal and cosmetic uses of herbs is contributing to the growth of herbal industry. A large number of ailments have Ayurvedic treatment much superior to the other system of medicines and this has been recognized world over.
Chemicals & Dyes Used in the Textile Industry
The term spices and condiments applies to such natural plant or vegetable products and mixtures thereof, used in whole or ground form, mainly for imparting flavor, aroma and piquancy to foods and also for seasoning of foods beverages like soups. The great mystery and beauty of spices is their use, blending and ability to change and enhance the character of food. Spices and condiments have a special significance in various ways in human life because of its specific flavours, taste, and aroma.
Using heat or high temperature is common practice in plant operations to manufacture a product. This color change from temperature, called thermochromism, is problematic for plastic, coating, and textile applications during quality control inspections. Too hot of temperature or long exposure to high temperature may completely degrade the color of an object. In other instances, an object or sample drifts to another shade of color until it stabilizes back to room temperature. Certain colors are more susceptible to this drift, depending on the application. In the textiles industry, for example, a textile material goes through a dye and dry process that often shifts its color temporarily. After being taken out of the dye bath, textiles are rinsed, finished, and then placed in a high temperature oven to dry. However, manufacturers may notice a change in the textile color during this time. A fabric dyed blue, for example, may drift to a reddish hue while it's still hot or warm from the oven and then slowly adjust to its correct blue color after stabilizing to room temperature. Quality control and process control procedures are required to ensure a product meets the defined color standard through an efficient process. An outline of these procedures should define how the product is to be evaluated, when and how often it should be inspected, and steps to be taken for troubleshooting color inconsistencies.
Dye Application, Manufacture of Dye Intermediates and Dyes
Dyeing and printing are processes employed in the conversion of raw textile fibres into finished goods that add much to the appearance of textile fabrics. Most forms of textile materials can be dyed at almost any stage. Quality woollen goods are frequently dyed in the form of loose fibre , but top dyeing or cheese dyeing is favoured in treating worsteds. Manufacturers prefer piece dyeing, which allows stocking of white goods, reducing the risk of being overstocked with cloth dyed in colours that have not been ordered. The dye used depends on the type of material and the specific requirements to be met. For some purposes, high lightfastness is essential; but for others it may be inconsequential.
Biological growth and synthetic fabrication of structurally colored materials
Dyeing is the application of dyes or pigments on textile materials such as fibers , yarns , and fabrics with the goal of achieving color with desired color fastness. Dyeing is normally done in a special solution containing dyes and particular chemical material. Dye molecules are fixed to the fibre by absorption, diffusion, or bonding with temperature and time being key controlling factors. The bond between dye molecule and fibre may be strong or weak, depending on the dye used. Dyeing and printing are different applications; in printing color is applied to a localized area with desired patterns and in dyeing it is applied to the entire textile.
To get the best possible experience using our website, we recommend that you upgrade to latest version of this browser or install another web browser. Network with colleagues and access the latest research in your field. Find a chemistry community of interest and connect on a local and global level. Technical Divisions Collaborate with scientists in your field of chemistry and stay current in your area of specialization.
Light is comprised, in part, of various wavelengths of radiant energy. The human eye, with its marvelous physiology of cones, interprets the wavelengths from to nanometers a nanometer being 1 x 10 -9 meter , transforming this input into the realization of color. Thus within this narrow portion of the total radiant energy of light lie all the colors that are perceived. The shorter wavelengths of light give violet and blue, the midrange gives greens and yellows, and the longer waves give orange and red.
Until recently fats and oils have been in surplus, and considered a relatively low value byproduct. Only recently have energy uses of fats and oils begun to be economically viable. Food value of fats and oils is still far above the energy value of fats and oils.
Патрик сказал мне, что _никто_ из вас не собирается последовать за нами, - выпалила Наи. - Так вот какой награды я удостоилась за многолетнюю преданность своим друзьям. Ради вас я увела своих детей из собственного дома. Я лишила Кеплера и Галилея нормального детства из уважения и восхищения перед вами, Николь, моим примером для подражания.