Nice things people say. The range of plants is good too, making the sourcing process even easier. The staff are both helpful and knowledgeable and if I need something unusual that they haven't got they'll do their best to source it for me. For one particular project I brought our client to the nursery to look at the stock and we picked individual trees that we knew would fit well.
Dear readers! Our articles talk about typical ways to solve the issue of renting industrial premises, but each case is unique.
If you want to know how to solve your particular problem, please contact the online consultant form on the right or call the numbers on the website. It is fast and free!
Howard NurseryVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: N-Ext DIY Plant, Shrub and Tree Package Overview
Chapter 16 Exploitation of the potential of multipurpose trees and shrubs in agroforestry. Trees and shrubs occur in a wide variety of land-use systems. For simplicity these systems can be grouped into 11 major categories. Although considerable research has been undertaken on the management of tropical rain forests, relatively little attention has been given to the natural tree and shrub associations of drier zones.
Nevertheless these communities offer a significant and often the sole source of plant materials, especially for fuel and fodder; often they contain species that could have great potential as planted exotics for other sites.
Generally there is more information and experience of tropical and subtropical trees than shrubs from the points of view of ecology, distribution, inventory, use and management. These are large areas created and managed intensively, usually with exotic species, for the production of timber to supply sawmills, pulpmills, veneer factories, chipboard plant, etc.
The plantations are usually owned and managed by state enterprises. These are small areas of ha created for the benefit of village or town communities where they are often referred to as "peri-urban plantations" , often by the state, and more recently by the communities themselves in some form of social forestry. They may be on state or community land and may yield timber, poles and fuelwood plus occasionally fruit, fodder and other products.
There are often difficulties of management, protection and distribution of benefits. These are small plantations of less than 10 ha, often much less, that are established by the individual farmer for the production of poles, fuel, fodder and possibly other products; multipurpose trees are thus desirable. The products supply the farmer's own needs with excess for sale and such woodlots may be established on unused or degraded land with a view to rehabilitating it.
Individual trees may be left or planted randomly at wide intervals in productive agricultural land to supply wood, fuel, fodder, fruit, honey and shade. In this group of systems, one or more rows of trees are planted alternately with several rows of agricultural crop plants and the trees are hedged, coppiced or pollarded frequently.
The decline in value of crop yield caused by the loss of land occupied by trees should be compensated or exceeded by the fertilizing effect of the tree leaves and other ways of soil improvement by trees, and by the value of tree products poles and fuel. This is becoming the most widely recommended agroforestry system see Kang and Wilson, this volume. This includes the planting of one or more rows of. They can provide the usual services and benefits. They are also known as windbreaks and have significant effects on micrometeorological factors up to several times their height away from the edge.
The species, age composition, canopy density, height and profile are all important determinants of their effectiveness. They also produce valuable by-products. Trees and agricultural crops may follow each other on the same piece of land in planted "fallow" systems in which the trees restore the soil fertility. Taungya is a system whereby trees are planted, often at close industrial spacing, together with intercrops of agricultural species, the agricultural crops being grown for up to three or four years.
Silvopastoral systems involve the incorporation of tree and shrub management and animal husbandry. The trees may be used for fodder production, shade and pasture improvement. Intensity of the operations can vary from extensive range management in dry zones to intensive trees-over-pasture in areas of higher rainfall.
The use of trees in these roles encompasses many technologies. Protection forestry generally requires the management, through natural regeneration, of existing indigenous vegetation, which requires protection from grazing and damaging exploitation above all. For the reclamation and rehabilitation of degraded land the function of trees is primarily for soil conservation or improvement, coupled with production of mainly wood and fodder.
The arrangement of the planted trees which can be combined in agroforestry systems should follow these major objectives. For virtually all these systems a multipurpose plant would be considered more useful than a species fitted for only one purpose. In fact there can be very few species that, if they are used at all, are not used for several purposes, products, benefits and services. There has been considerable discussion of the definition of multipurpose trees see the views of several specialists compiled in Burley and von Carlowitz, but the concept is now well established, largely as a result of the interests and activities of ICRAF.
The attention to MPTS has developed in parallel with the growth of social forestry programmes and the research and development of agroforestry systems that can be used to meet the objectives of social forestry and integrated rural development programmes.
The incorporation of MPTS into land-use systems requires Significant changes in the attitude, understanding and co-operation of professional foresters, horticulturists, agronomists and various groups of extension workers. The products and services derived from trees and shrubs are manifold and vary between societies and environments, but they can be summarized simply as follows:. Environmental benefits Climatic moderation macro- and micro- Soil stabilization Soil improvement Water-flow moderation Wildlife habitats Boundary demarcation Pest and weed control Use or rehabilitation of degraded land, improving downstream environments.
Socio-economic benefits Amenity and tourism Employment generation — especially for the landless Income generation — including foreign exchange Import substitutions Public education Rehabilitation of abandoned and degraded land, increasing production Counter seasonally Risk reduction Labour saving in some situations Improved human and animal nutrition and health.
Exploitation is often used in a pejorative sense to indicate the utilization of a person or object for one's own selfish ends, but in fact this is the implication of man's use of multipurpose trees and shrubs. We seek species and populations that can provide the many benefits in the several land-use systems indicated above.
Potential is taken here to indicate cryptic, possible value for such uses and to exploit it requires knowledge of hitherto hidden values; this necessitates research that is specific to sites, managerial systems and end-use processes.
An idealized, complete research programme for a new land-use system or site is summarized in Appendix 1. Clearly not all of these stages are required for each site or species; many species are already at an advanced stage of genetic and managerial development either by researchers or by line managers an. However, the appendix acts as a checklist for researchers and managers initiating development of new areas or systems.
Not all of the stages need to be conducted sequentially; some can be undertaken in parallel or telescoped together. Nevertheless, the determination of an optimum system and combination of species requires co-operative research and implementation between a range of authorities and disciplines. The major, specific stages and problems related to the incorporation of the MPTS themselves can be grouped into the following principal topics — genetic variation, germplasm supplies, assessment of multiple products and services, and crop management.
The large number of tree and shrub species already recorded as promising or possible some 2, species were listed in Burley and von Carlowitz, is at once a potential benefit and a problem. No one species is likely to be the "wonder species" for all sites and purposes but it is difficult to cope with such large numbers in formal species trials even on efficient research stations interested in a single major product.
It is infinitely more difficult to cope with large numbers on less well endowed stations or in on-farm research. Preliminary screening is thus needed and the climatic matching systems collectively known as homoclimal comparisons and quantified by, e. However, there will always be a need for elimination and proving trials of reasonable numbers of species on each major site type. Centrally planned co-operative trials on many sites, such as the Oxford Forestry Institute OFI 's international trial of dry-zone hardwoods, will allow the estimation and explanation of genotype-environment interactions and the extrapolation of results to untested sites if the environmental conditions are known.
In this international network seed and herbarium material from 25 Central American species were collected see Table 1 and Hughes and Styles, ; seeds are being distributed to some 60 sites in more than 25 countries. An indication of the suitability of these species for different uses in their natural range is given in Table 2. Not all of these will be found in all exotic sites and not all are equally important on any individual site, but they indicate the potential of this group of species. Similar sets of species can be found elsewhere e.
For naturally widely distributed species, natural selection and often man's interference causes genetic variation between populations; for species that have been managed as exotics for several generations artificial and natural selection in the planting sites may cause the evolution of land races. All of these different sources termed "provenances" by foresters should be tested for each site and management system, but clearly they compound the problems of species trials with large numbers of sources.
Nevertheless, the correct choice of optimum seed source offers the major and simplest step in genetic improvement and the determination of the most productive or acceptable system.
Later tree-breeding efforts are wasted or reduced in value if the original germplasm source is not optimal. Table 1 Distribution and phenological characteristics of semi-arid species in the OFI international network.
Table 2 Use and managerial characteristics of semi-arid species in the OFI international network. Current emphasis is on provenance variation of Acacia, Eucalyptus, Leucaena and Prosopis species, while among the most exhaustive exploration and evaluation of a single species are the studies on Leucaena leucocephala Brewbaker, this volume and the OFI international study of Gliricidia sepium Hughes, , The available seed sources of the latter are listed in Table 3.
Preliminary assessments of field trials in several locations demonstrate considerable differences between provenances in form and growth rate up to two years. All the earlier evidence from international and native provenance trials of industrial species such as tropical pines and eucalyptus confirms that large intraspecific variation occurs in wide-ranging species.
The same situation is being demonstrated in MPTS and variations can be expected to be enhanced by the existence of local land races that developed in exotic and natural locations under man's selection. With the exception of Leucaena species covered in a separate chapter in this volume by Brewbaker and Prosopis species see several papers in Felker, , for most MPTS currently in use or under research it is perhaps premature to consider selective tree breeding, but the short sexual and managerial cycles allow rapid progress to be made once individual selection begins.
The principles are no different from those of industrial tree species, nor indeed from those of agricultural and horticultural species, and they were outlined for MPTS by Burley Evidence of intra-population genetic control of one set of characteristics biochemical of fodder trees was found in Prosopis by Oduol et al. All of the above are examples of the potential of MPTS but, with the exception of Leucaena , they are preliminary indicators only. As highlighted by Brewbaker this volume , the widespread attack by psyllids on Leucaena leucocephala and the species intolerance of acid soils stress the value of interspecific hybridization within a genus and the importance of evaluating a wide range of other species and genera.
The great interest in development of a wide range of MPTS causes a corollary problem in supplies of appropriate germplasm. Even assuming the correct genetic source has been identified, it is often difficult to obtain guaranteed supplies with the internationally recognized certificates of health, origin and physiological and physical quality.
An indication of the systems of certification available was given by Jones and Burley , and the problems of tropical and subtropical developing countries in implementing such systems were described by Burley They show a remarkable variation in ability or inclination to provide appropriate seed-source information.
Table 3 Summary of seed collection site data for the OFI international network of Gliriddia species and provenance trials. For industrial plantation species the most important features affecting quantity or quality of products are well known and standard methods of assessment exist for example, height, diameter, form, taper, branch dimensions, forking or wood density.
For MPTS, however, many products and services need evaluation and, for some, appropriate techniques are either not yet developed or at least not known to the forestry-trained researchers who are currently conducting the bulk of the tree-related research; these include fodder-quality characteristics, soil-improving capacity, nitrogen-fixation ability, and the effect of the tree or shrub on agricultural crops or animals. Market values may not exist for some of these traits, while others may be negatively correlated so that an improvement in one causes a decline in another.
This causes particular problems for the tree breeder who then needs to develop selection indices, but rapid and simple assessment procedures are also needed for the evaluation of MPTS in species, provenance and management trials. In addition to anatomical, chemical and morphological features, the traits of interest include phonological and physiological characters of the tree or shrub and chemical and biophysical evaluation of its effects on the soil.
Many of these traits were described by Burley et al. When using MPTS as energy sources there is a need to estimate and partition the amount of biomass produced within and between individual plants. Classical industrial forestry methods of mensuration are not applicable to MPTS used for biomass production since they have small heights and diameters, multiple stems and branches, and a significant component in their leaves, particularly if they are to be used for liquid and gaseous fuel or chemical and dietary feedstock.
There is an urgent need to develop sampling and statistical prediction methods to partition biomass among stems, branches, leaves and roots while extrapolating from small plots or individual trees often open-grown to large areas. The initial screening and evaluation of tree and shrub species, commonly called elimination, is concerned principally with the ability of the species to survive the natural and managerial conditions of the planting site in the first few years.
This stage is often carried out using standard forestry approaches with replicated designs and multi-tree plots, good protection, weeding and other site improvements. However, MPTS must also be evaluated in the longer term to estimate their performance in agroforestry systems, both on research stations and on farms. There is therefore a need to develop designs to test for early intercropping and resource sharing, to examine the effects of trees and shrubs on the soil sustainability, and to study the response to managerial treatments such as coppicing, lopping and pruning.
When the effectiveness of these designs is determined, and the results of systematic research become available, individual workers and institutions will be able to evaluate and capitalize on the great potential of MPTS to enhance man's survival and welfare. Without rational research and development of acceptable species and systems the current enthusiasm for MPTS runs the risk of alienating farmers and development agencies by failing to provide socio-economically acceptable packages.
Booth, T. Recent developments in homoclime analysis to assist species selection. Darnhofer and W. Reifsnyder eds. Burley, J.
What helped generate profit in years past may not work well anymore. Pricing nursery plants today is a lot like playing chess; you move and watch to see what the competition does. They make a move and then you plot your next strategy. Years ago, pricing products had the appearance of being cost-based and somewhat mathematical.
The pricing game
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Acre An area of land measuring 43, square feet. A square 1-acre plot measures feet by feet; a circular acre has a radius of Amphibian Any of a class of vertebrates that regulate their body temperature externally; lay shell-less eggs in wet areas; live in water during early development and live both in water and on land as adults; and use lungs, gills and their skin for breathing. Most have four legs and smooth, moist skin without scales. Angiosperm A plant that has true flowers and bears its seeds in fruits. In temperate zones, many angiosperms are deciduous trees, while in tropical zones, many are evergreen trees. Examples include oaks, willows, maples and birches.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Landscaping with Trees and Shrubs: Types and Planting
A nursery is a place where plants are propagated and grown to a desired age. They include retail nurseries which sell to the general public, wholesale nurseries which sell only to businesses such as other nurseries and to commercial gardeners , and private nurseries which supply the needs of institutions or private estates. Nurseries may supply plants for gardens, agriculture, forestry and conservation biology. Some of them specialize in one phase of the process: propagation, growing out, or retail sale; or in one type of plant: e. Some produce bulk stock, whether seedlings or grafted, of particular varieties for purposes such as fruit trees for orchards, or timber trees for forestry. Some produce stock seasonally, ready in springtime for export to colder regions where propagation could not have been started so early, or to regions where seasonal pests prevent profitable growing early in the season. Nurseries grow plants in open fields, on container fields, in tunnels or greenhouses.
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Ну, хорошо, матушка жениха, - проговорил Ричард несколько секунд спустя. - И что ты думаешь. - Учитывая все обстоятельства, я довольна. Ты знаешь, как я отношусь к Наи. Однако - довольно странное место и время для свадьбы. Все собрались в гостиной Уэйкфилдов, ожидая выхода невесты. Патрик нервно тер руки. - Потерпи, молодой человек, - сказал Макс, обнимая Патрика.
Glossary of Forestry Terms
Мы помогли ему - как ты говоришь, своей медицинской магией. - Ах, Симона, _Си-мона_. - вскричала Николь. - Неужели. Неужели это правда.
- Потрясение сперва помешало Николь разразиться слезами, но теперь они потекли из ее глаз. Невзирая на боль в бедре и неудобный космический шлем, Николь едва не вскочила, чтобы обнять Орла.
- Спасибо. О, спасибо. - вскрикнула .
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И буквально через секунды он выпустил Ричарда и упрятал пасть за множеством ветвей. Спотыкаясь, Ричард выбрался на тропу и обнял Николь. Оба прокричали "спасибо", и трое октопауков исчезли в лесу так же быстро, как и появились.
Ни Ричард, ни Николь не заметили, что оба светляка вновь повисли над их головами. Николь внимательно осмотрела Ричарда, но не обнаружила ничего опасного - только порезы и царапины.
- Ну, теперь я больше ни шагу с тропы, - сказал он со слабой улыбкой. - Наконец-то тебя осенила неплохая идея, - проговорила Николь. Продолжая углубляться в лес, они обсудили происшедшее. Ричард был естественно потрясен случившимся. - Ветви возле моего левого плеча раздвинулись, открыв эту дыру.
Да, со мной все в порядке, - проговорил он. - Никак не могу поверить, что это. Кэти, ах, Кэти. Ах да, та серая масса, о которую ты только что споткнулась, - мой друг и собрат по заключению, октопаук Арчи.
Проговорил Ричард. - Верховный Оптимизатор не сомневалась в том, что октопауки выиграют войну. Что, если вам напасть на этот лагерь и полностью уничтожить его?.
Действительно, - он пересек комнату и дважды торопливо нажал кнопку возле ее постели. - Николь, у меня к тебе весьма деликатное. Вспомни - вчера мы сказали тебе, что у нас с Симоной есть друзья, созданные инопланетянами.
По головам всех окружавших ее октопауков струились цветовые полосы. Николь _понимала_, что хозяева обсуждают ее реакцию. Она вдруг ощутила себя нагой.