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Manufacturing manufacture matches

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The Lundström Brothers – The safety match

VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Prilimnary process of match stick manufacturing

These two non-mechanized sectors of the match industry are distinguished primarily by output size. Officially, the cottage industry in match making is defined as any manual production unit producing less than 75, cases of match boxes per year. The industry as a whole directly employs an estimated , people, with only 6, of these in the mechanized sector. The cottage sector, which involves totally manual operations and produces less than 75 million match sticks per year and is often household-based, accounts for about 50, workers.

Thus, small-scale, factory-based match production units employ by far the largest number of people , workers involved in the match sector. As is the case with many FBSSEs the production of wooden matches is highly suited to handmade, household-based production.

For every 6 workers employed in the mechanized sector, 22 can be employed in the non-mechanized sector. Men, women, children, the elderly and partially handicapped persons can all be employed. Match making by hand is labour-intensive. It requires low levels of technology and relatively small capital investments. A number of operations in the production process can be easily undertaken at home. These factors clearly demonstrate the significant socio-economic value of small-scale match production.

Recognizing this, Indian government policies have consistently favored the handmade sector. All future expansion of the match industry is reserved for this sector, with particular emphasis on the cottage sector.

These districts are in a very dry, unirrigated area where the rural population has traditionally been extremely poor. In Kerala there is a tradition of practicing farm forestry on home gardens and around plantations. Farm forestry is now being promoted by the State Forest Department.

The following case study describes the development of the match industry in southern India over the last several decades. In particular it highlights the effects of concerted government efforts to encourage the small-scale sector. The study also points out some important issues and constraints including a chronic shortage of raw materials which many FBSSEs face the world over.

Firsthand and secondary data for the study were drawn from various sources in the states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Various commissions and institutes involved not only in match making but also in the cottage, small and medium industry sectors were consulted. Interviews of several entrepreneurs in the non-mechanized or unorganized sector provided further information on small-scale match enterprises.

Data from Wimco, one of the oldest wood processing and professionally managed private sector enterprises in India, contributed much of the information used in the analysis of the organized sector.

Around immigrant Japanese families who settled in Calcutta began making matches with simple hand- and power-operated machines. Local people soon learned the necessary skills and a number of small match factories sprang up in and around Calcutta. These small match factories could not meet the total requirements of the country however, and India began to import matches from Sweden and Japan. During the First World War, when Swedish matches could not be imported, the Indian market was fed mainly by imported matches from Japan and by the locally made ones which followed the Japanese pattern introduced in Calcutta.

After the war, factories in Calcutta were unable to compete with imports, and handmade match production shifted to southern India, especially in the Ramanathapuram and Tirunelveli districts of Tamil Nadu State. This shift was due to the pioneering efforts of P. Iya Nadar and A. Shanmuga Nadar who went to Calcutta to learn the process from Purna Chandra Ray, a local businessman, who had learned the trade in Germany.

The Nadars set up a number of manual match production units in extremely poor regions of Tamil Nadu, where a combination of the dry climate, cheap labour and availability of raw materials from nearby Kerala created ideal conditions for match production. The first sulphur match that would bum when brought into contact with a rough surface was produced in South India in , and the first safety match, in the form we know today, in Wimco , started operations in as a unit of the multinational Swedish Match Company.

Wimco is still the only representative of the large scale sector in wooden match manufacturing and is the only fully mechanized match factory in the country. During the past three decades, the Indian match industry grew especially rapidly. Government policies protected Indian matches by placing protective tariffs on imported products and specifically favored the expansion of the handmade, small-scale sector through the use of differential excise taxes.

Protective tariffs, differential excise duties and sales tax exemption are some of the mechanisms used by central and state governments to develop the industry. This tax was later confirmed as a protective tariff in , and attracted a number of new entrepreneurs, with both semi-mechanized and handmade factories, to the industry.

Match production is usually measured in boxes. Each match box contained approximately 60 match sticks initially, new standards mandate that each box contain 50 sticks. This was doubled to Rs 3. During this 8-year period, the excise duty was uniformly applied to all manufacturers of matches.

In a major change in policy was introduced with the differential excise levy. The rate remained unchanged at Rs 3. Over the next ten years further classification resulted in 5 levels of production with progressive concessions to smaller units. In the basis for differentiation was expanded to include the mode of production as well as the volume produced. This decision further strengthened the small-scale enterprises and remains as a main plank of government policies in the present.

In an even more dramatic spread in excise duties was mandated, raising the duties of the mechanized sector and lowering those in the handmade sector. Most recently, production limits on the middle and cottage sectors have been removed with an excise duty of Rs 3. The objectives of these decisions were to: - ensure the acceleration in the share of the cottage sector at the expense of the mechanized sector and the larger non-mechanized handmade sector; - increase employment, particularly in rural areas; - to minimize the impact of match price increases to the consumer.

The differential levies in force in and are illustrated in Table 4. Between and the number of factories increased from 27 to The government is aware that the policy of differential excise levies acts as a positive disincentive for small units to expand their production and even encourages some bigger units to go in for deliberate fragmentation. No satisfactory solution which would strike a balance between the legitimate interests of the small sector and prevention of abuse of official policy has been developed.

There are a number of match producers who have fragmented their units to get the benefit of concessions, but at the same time there is a growing trend towards centralized ownership of many smaller units. Another result of government policies has been to severely limit the activities of Wimco in the mechanized sector. Most of the raw materials are the same regardless of the level of production, but the process is slightly different in the mechanized and hand-made sectors.

With the exception of sulphur, all the basic raw materials are produced within India. A full appreciation of the employment potential of the match industry should also consider the workers involved in the production of all of these raw materials. Both the quantity and quality of matchwood are determinants for quality products. Historically the Indian match industry depended on imported wood including aspen Populus tremula from Sweden, Canada, America, and Russia; cotton wood Populus deltoides from Canada; balsam poplar Populus balsamifera from Manchuria; and linden Tilia japonica from Japan.

But the government quickly moved to encourage the use of indigenous woods by restricting the import of foreign poplars. One result of the early use of poplar wood has been that the consumer continues to associate good quality matches with light colored wood, placing further limitations on the selection of indigenous species. Ailanthus malabarica, DC A large number of Indian tree species have been found suitable for use in the match industry. Among the most important Indian matchwoods are semul Bombax ceiba , also known as Indian cottonwood which is good for boxes as well as splints, Indian aspen Evodia roxburghiana and white mutty Ailanthus malabarica , both suitable for high quality splints.

It is easier to find good match wood then box wood. While 29 species have been identified as suitable for match wood, only a few are acceptable for making high quality boxes. Of these only semul is commercially available on a sufficiently large scale. But supplies of semul are being steadily depleted in spite of government efforts to raise plantations.

Semul requires a forty to fifty year rotation to grow large enough to produce quality veneer which further exacerbates the supply problem. In response, a number of substitute woods of poorer quality are being used, particularly by the cottage sector.

For instance, the wood of the rubber tree Hevea brazilensis from plantations in Kerala is now being used for boxes.

Wood supplies have drastically declined in the last 25 years, and the demand for matches continues to grow. For one case 7, matches with 50 splints per box of wooden matches approximately 0.

Recently prices of some other materials such as match wax, potassium chlorate, potassium bichromate and blue match paper have risen dramatically. The steep rise in the price of potassium chlorate since from Rs to Rs 1, per 50 kg illustrates this trend. In the hand made sector veneer for match boxes and splints are produced separately. The remaining stages are all done manually, often as piecework at home and then assembled or boxed at small factory units. The technology of match making is relatively simple and involves a number of stages, whether they are mechanized or not: i.

Processing timber logs into outer and inner box veneers and splints is the first stage. This process requires power operated machines but these can be simple, locally made, slow speed log peelers or the high speed Swedish made peeling lathes, splint choppers, and splint dryers used by Wimco. In the mechanized sector the cut splints and box veneer are fed directly into box making machines and match dipping machines.

In the small-scale and cottage sectors the cut splints and box size veneer are transported from producers in Kerala, across the border to factories in Tamil Nadu. Box making comes next and is done both by machine as well as manually.

In the hand-made sector outer veneers are issued to workers either at the factory or at their homes along with blue match paper cut to size. Tapioca flour-paste is used to assemble the outer boxes by hand. Although rates are currently under revision an average worker can make 40 to 50 gross boxes per day, at little more than 0.

Inner boxes are prepared the same way, usually by women, at home, with 35 gross a day at 0. Dipping and filling in the handmade sector begins with the distribution of the cut and cleaned splints to workers along with wooden frames consisting of 50 laths, each with 50 grooves. These frames must be filled by hand, each splint fitted into a separate little groove and is the most labour-intensive of handmade match operations.

The dipped matches are now dried atmospherically in racks. Once dry the splints are filled in boxes at the rate of 50 per box and put into side-painting frames and levelled. Thereafter, a mixture of red amorphous phosphorous, glue and bichromate of potash is manually painted with a brush on one side.

This side painting is usually done by monthly paid adult workers, mostly men. Labelling and packing come next, once the side painting dries. Workers take the painted boxes from the frames and affix labels and excise stamps to them. The labelled boxes are then packed into dozen packets and 12 dozen packets are packed into a one gross box.

In a competitive world of match production, Malai Mahudam Match Works are known for manufacturing quality wax match sticks. We have earned a remarkable position in the domestic as well as in the international market.

The safety matches are still referred to as Swedish matches in a lot of countries to this day. Manufacturing of safety matches began in and was a major success at the World Expo in Paris They were awarded the silver medal for managing to manufacture matches without the workers developing phosphorus poisoning. For a long time, matches were manufactured by hand. They were made of aspen and a single log of aspen could produce , matches.

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A match is a small stick of wood or strip of cardboard with a solidified mixture of flammable chemicals deposited on one end. When that end is struck on a rough surface, the friction generates enough heat to ignite the chemicals and produce a small flame. Some matches, called strike-anywhere matches, may be ignited by striking them on any rough surface. Other matches, called safety matches, will ignite only when they are struck on a special rough surface containing certain chemicals. The first known use of matches was in during the siege of a town in northern China.

The Last Matchstick Factory In The US Will Soon Shut Down

Mumbai, Maharashtra. Muthuramalinga Puram, Madurai No. Madurai, Tamil Nadu. Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu.

Beck Co Philadelphia Pa surfacecoated paper National Print Cutters Association print blocks and rollers.

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Safety Matches

These two non-mechanized sectors of the match industry are distinguished primarily by output size. Officially, the cottage industry in match making is defined as any manual production unit producing less than 75, cases of match boxes per year. The industry as a whole directly employs an estimated , people, with only 6, of these in the mechanized sector. The cottage sector, which involves totally manual operations and produces less than 75 million match sticks per year and is often household-based, accounts for about 50, workers.

No hazardous raw materials are used. For every Solstickan box sold, some of the proceeds are donated to the Solstickan Foundation, which has a mission to support two main groups — people with disabilities and sick children, and the elderly.

At its height, the Diamond match plant in Cloquet, Minn. This week the remaining 85 workers were told that they will all have to look for new jobs. According to a report in the Pioneer Press , the new owners of the plant, where the company manufactures toothpicks, matchsticks and other wooden products, have decided not to keep the facility. But after touring the plant, Royal Oak decided it did not want to include the plant in its purchase of Newell. Without a buyer, Newell ultimately decided to shutter it within six months. Representatives from Newell said they will provide assistance to the remaining employees of the plant. The facility has been around since In the s it was renovated and outfitted with equipment from Sweden, some of which is still being used in the plant today. Minnesota Public Radio reports that the plant once had a reputation for multiple safety hazards, including open saws that often injured workers and fires started from employees stepping on matches that had dropped on the floor. The invention of disposable lighters and the electric stove undoubtedly sent the matchstick industry into decline decades ago.

Bilal is a best leading Safety Match Boxes Exporters, Safety Matches manufacturers company in Sivakasi, Tamilnadu, India. Get top quality Match Box offer!

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Being one among the best Safety Matches in Sivakasi, Tamiladu, India, the whole team works hard with the focused mindset in order to deliver the best quality products to all our clients. All the processes such as printing, screening, cutting and many more are embedded in the well-built infrastructure andusing latest technology machines from Sweden and Norway. Most prominently, we make use of optimum quality raw materials. Our skilled employees utilize the most sophisticated machines to achieve the reputation as safety matches manufacturers in India and potassium chlorate. The products are scrutinized batch by batch in the well-equipped laboratory by using latest control techniques. As a whole, we ensure to get our safety matches manufactured in Sivakasi to pass the quality standards of all the countries and delivered within the committed time. Ultimately, we tend to maintain the perfect time sense in delivering safety matches manufactured in Sivakasi.

Safety Matches manufacturers and Safety Matches exporters in India.

Can you name one untapped business opportunity in Rwanda that investors can take advantage of? This was the question How we made it in Africa posed to a panel of business leaders at the Afreximbank annual general meeting, held in the Rwandan capital Kigali last week.

Muthuramalinga Puram, Madurai No. Madurai, Tamil Nadu. Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu.

The synonym for fire? They are the core of our quality brand Europe Match. And a long tradition is related to them. Already around before Christ the first precursor had been developed.

Introduction of matches change the way we use fire in a profound way. With the ability for everyone to instantly create fire and make it portable, modern human civilization changed in many ways. The discovery of matches was a long process filled with numerous various designs that used vastly different chemical ingredients and modes of igniting the flames.

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