NSF was established in , with a single production facility in Egypt and a total annual production capacity of 36, tons. With our experienced team and the use of the latest equipment, we have more than doubled our capacity and have become a world leader. Today we offer a sophisticated and complex product range, which has resulted in NSF being chosen for critical projects across a variety of sectors and countries. We work on projects involving the production of different types of steel works, ranging from extra light up to extra heavy structural steel, specialist pressure vessels, storage tanks, a variety of plate works activities, piping spools, steel towers, and boilers.
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Low-rise residential buildings include the smallest buildings produced in large quantities. Other examples include the urban row house and walk-up apartment buildings.
Typically these forms have relatively low unit costs because of the limited purchasing power of their owners. The demand for this type of housing has a wide geographic distribution, and therefore most are built by small local contractors using relatively few large machines mostly for earth moving and large amounts of manual labour at the building site.
The demand for these buildings can have large local variations from year to year, and small builders can absorb these economic swings better than large organizations. The building systems developed for this market reflect its emphasis on manual labour and its low unit costs. All foundations must transmit the building loads to a stable stratum of earth. There are two criteria for stability: first, the soil under the foundations should be able to receive the imposed load without more than about 2.
It is also important that the bottom of the foundation be below the maximum winter frost level. Wet soil expands as it freezes, and repeated freeze—thaw cycles can move the building up and down, leading to possible displacement and damage. Maximum frost depth varies with climate and topography. It can be as deep as 1. The foundation systems for low-rise residential buildings are suitable for their light loads; nearly all are supported on spread footings , which are of two types—continuous footings that support walls and isolated pad footings that support concentrated loads.
The footings themselves are usually made of concrete poured directly on undisturbed soil to a minimum depth of about 30 centimetres 12 inches.
If typical continuous concrete footings are used, they usually support a foundation wall that acts either as a retaining wall to form a basement or as a frost wall with earth on both sides. Foundation walls can be built of reinforced concrete or masonry, particularly concrete block. Concrete blocks are of a standard size larger than bricks and are hollow, forming a grid of vertical planes.
They are the least expensive form of masonry—using cheap but strong material—and their large size economizes on the labour required to lay them. Their appearance and weathering properties are inferior to those of fired masonry, but they are satisfactory for foundation walls.
In some places timber foundation walls and spread footings are used. Excavation for foundations is the most highly mechanized operation in this building type; it is done almost entirely with bulldozers and backhoes. In these small buildings the ancient materials of timber and masonry are still predominant in the structural systems.
In North America , which has abundant softwood forests, light timber frames descended from the 19th-century balloon frame are widely used. The first step is to construct a floor , which rests on the foundation wall.
The span of the floor joists is usually about 3. The floor may need intermediate supports in the form of interior foundation walls or, if there is a basement, intermediate beams of wood or steel supported by the foundation walls and columns.
For longer spans, floor trusses can be made, with members joined by nail grids or nailed plywood gussets or with wood chords and diagonal metal web members. On top of the joists is nailed plywood subflooring, which forms the deck and gives lateral stability to the floor plane. The walls are sheathed on the outside with panels of plywood or particleboard to provide a surface to attach the exterior cladding and for lateral stability against wind. Plywood and particleboard are fabricated in panels of standard sizes.
Plywood is made of thin layers of wood, rotary-cut from logs and glued together with the wood grain running perpendicularly in adjoining layers. Particleboard consists of fine wood chips mixed together in an adhesive matrix and allowed to harden under pressure.
On top of the wall plate is placed either a second floor or the roof. Since most of the roofing materials used in these buildings are not fully watertight, the roofs must have sloped surfaces to rapidly drain off rainwater. Sloped forms are created by two methods. The traditional method uses joists similar to those of floor construction to span between exterior walls. Rafters are nailed to the ends of each joist and the rafters meet at a central ridge member, forming a triangular attic space.
Where no attic space is needed, it has proved more economical to span the roof with triangular trusses with interior web members. These roof trusses are usually made of narrow timbers joined by nails, glue, or metal connectors, and they are often prefabricated in a workshop. Plywood or particleboard sheathing is then nailed to the roof surfaces to receive the roofing and to provide lateral stability, making the entire frame into a rigid box.
Light timber frames are quite flammable, but small one- or two-story buildings are easy to evacuate in case of a fire , and building codes permit the use of these frames with such features as fire-resistant gypsum board on the interiors and fire-stops short wooden members between the studs.
Timber structures are attacked by certain species of insects—such as termites and carpenter ants—as well as certain fungi, particularly in warm, moist climates. Wood can be chemically treated to discourage these attacks; other precautions include raising the timber above the ground and keeping it dry.
Structural masonry walls are also used in this building type, primarily in multistory buildings, where they offer greater load-bearing capacity and fire resistance.
Brick and concrete block are the major materials, brick being favoured for exterior surfaces because of its appearance and durability.
Solid brick walls are rarely used, due to the higher labour and material costs; composite walls of brick and block or block alone are common. Cavity walls are used in colder climates; in these, two wythes vertical layers of masonry are built on either side of a layer of rigid insulation. The wythes are joined together by steel reinforcement that runs through the insulation and is laid in the horizontal masonry joints at intervals. Cavity walls have a heat-flow rate that is 50 percent of that of a solid wall.
Timber floor and roof construction, similar to balloon framing , is used with masonry construction; and there is also some use of precast prestressed hollow concrete panels, which are fireproof and can span up to nine metres 30 feet. Enclosure systems for this building type are varied.
For roofs, traditional wood shingles or, more commonly, felt asphalt shingles are used, as are semicylindrical clay tiles and standing-seam metal roofs. Rainwater from roofs is usually caught in metal gutters and directed to exterior downspouts that discharge onto splash blocks or into underground drains connected to storm sewers. The wall surfaces of low-rise residential buildings are clad with a range of different materials.
Traditional wood elements such as shingles and horizontal shiplap, or clapboard siding, are used on light timber frames as are vertical tongue-and-groove siding and boards and battens. Aluminum and vinyl sidings have been adapted from these wooden forms. Brick and stone veneer are also applied over timber and anchored to it with metal fasteners. Cement plaster , or stucco , is another traditional material used to enclose both timber and masonry structures, and its semiliquid application allows great plasticity of form.
A more recent development is a very thin synthetic resin stucco applied directly to the surface of rigid plastic foam insulation. Insulation , which slows the rate of heat transfer through the enclosure, is usually applied at all exterior building surfaces that are exposed to air. There are two major types of insulation, rigid and nonrigid.
Rigid insulations are primarily plastic foams the dead air in the foam cells is the true insulator , which vary in thickness from 2. They include styrofoam , used primarily below grade behind frost walls due to its low fire resistance; urethane foam; isocyanurate foam, which has the best fire resistance; and foam glass. Nonrigid insulations are usually made of fibre —glass fibre being the most common—often with a foil-backed paper on one side.
Fibre insulations are made in thicknesses up to 23 centimetres 9. The effectiveness of an insulation material is measured in terms of its heat-transfer rate, or U-value, often expressed as the number of BTUs passing through a given unit of insulating material each hour at an expressed temperature differential across the material. Low U-values indicate good insulating properties of the material.
U-value is an inverse function of thickness, so that there is a limit to the cost-effectiveness of increasing the amount of insulation on a surface. Rigid insulation panels are applied to vertical wall sheathing and the surfacing material is fastened through the insulation, or it is applied to horizontal roof decks. Glass fibre is usually applied in the spaces between wall studs and between roof joists or the bottom chords of roof trusses. Most low-rise residential buildings have a limited number of transparent openings in their exteriors, because of the traditional requirements of interior privacy and the relatively higher cost of windows compared to opaque walls.
The traditional wooden frames of domestic windows are often clad in extruded vinyl or aluminum cladding, and frames made entirely of extruded aluminum are common. Residential windows are a major means of ventilation, and there are a variety of operating actions for their movable sections: sliding or double-hung windows are still the major form, but hinged types—including casement, hopper, and awning forms—are also used.
Sliding glass panel doors are also used, particularly in warmer regions. Glazing is still largely of clear glass. A recent development is heat-mirror glass , in which a low-emissivity coating enhances the relative opacity of the glass to infrared radiation and slows the rate of internal heat loss in winter. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents.
Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Load Previous Page. Low-rise residential buildings Low-rise residential buildings include the smallest buildings produced in large quantities. Foundations All foundations must transmit the building loads to a stable stratum of earth.
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We manufacture and supply steel structures for end — users , investors and contractors involved into projects in energy, civil and industrial construction industries. Since , our company is specialized on production of the following steel structures: — Lattice steel poles for overhead power lines 35 — kV, — Standard and unique steel structures for civil and industrial construction projects, — Steel grating for different applications, — Welded beams, — Lighting poles, — GSM towers, — Bridge safety barriers, etc. We offer also services of hot — dip galvanizing, powder coating and duplex coating application. High quality of our products and services , reliability , short delivery terms are our crucial competitive advantages. We performed tens of successful projects on manufacture and delivery of steel structures for customers from different countries including Ukraine, some CIS countries, Afganistan and EU. The production capacity of our factory is up to 4, MT of steel structures per month.
STEEL IN BUILDINGS AND INFRASTRUCTURE
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Utilization of structural steel in buildings
The high-rise building is generally defined as one that is taller than the maximum height which people are willing to walk up; it thus requires mechanical vertical transportation. This includes a rather limited range of building uses, primarily residential apartments, hotels, and office buildings, though occasionally including retail and educational facilities. A type that has appeared recently is the mixed-use building, which contains varying amounts of residential, office, hotel, or commercial space. High-rise buildings are among the largest buildings built, and their unit costs are relatively high; their commercial and office functions require a high degree of flexibility. The foundations of high-rise buildings support very heavy loads, but the systems developed for low-rise buildings are used, though enlarged in scale.
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The development of construction methods in iron and steel was the most important innovation in architecture since ancient times. These methods provide far stronger and taller structures with less expenditure of material than stone, brick, or wood and can produce greater unsupported spans over openings and interior or exterior spaces. The evolution of steel frame construction in the 20th century entirely changed the concept of the wall and the support.
Structural steel is a category of steel used for making construction materials in a variety of shapes. Many structural steel shapes take the form of an elongated beam having a profile of a specific cross section. Structural steel shapes, sizes, chemical composition , mechanical properties such as strengths, storage practices, etc. Most structural steel shapes, such as I -beams , have high second moments of area , which means they are very stiff in respect to their cross-sectional area and thus can support a high load without excessive sagging. The shapes available are described in many published standards worldwide, and a number of specialist and proprietary cross sections are also available. While many sections are made by hot or cold rolling , others are made by welding together flat or bent plates for example, the largest circular hollow sections are made from flat plate bent into a circle and seam-welded. The terms angle iron , channel iron , and sheet iron have been in common use since before wrought iron was replaced by steel for commercial purposes. They have lived on after the era of commercial wrought iron and are still sometimes heard today, informally, in reference to steel angle stock, channel stock, and sheet, despite that they are misnomers compare "tin foil", still sometimes used informally for aluminum foil.
Low-rise residential buildings
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Material efficiency in clean energy transitions
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These buildings are typically used for workshops, factories, industrial and distribution warehouses and retail and leisure. Whilst most single-storey buildings are relatively straightforward building projects, increasing levels of specialisation by steelwork contractors and other supply chain members have, in recent years, led to huge improvements in quality, cost and delivery performance of single storey steel buildings.
This building proposes a new way of working: using information technology to shape both the way people work as well as the spaces in which they do it. From the minute employees wake up, they are connected. The app checks their schedule, and the building recognises their car when they arrive and directs them to a parking spot. Once in The Edge, employees no longer have assigned desks.
Buildings - from houses to car-parks to schools and skyscrapers - rely on steel for their strength. Steel is also used on roofs and as cladding for exterior walls. This will be accompanied by rapid urbanisation. Steelmakers around the world are increasingly providing construction solutions that enable energy-efficient and low-carbon-neutral buildings.
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