Of late, business press and management seminars have been alive with the promise that leading-edge production technology will restore the competitive cost position of American industry. Less well appreciated, however, are the far-reaching effects that such process advances will have on the underlying structure of manufacturing operations. Heightened flexibility, shorter production runs, more customized products, […]. Heightened flexibility, shorter production runs, more customized products, faster responses to changes in market demand, greater control and accuracy of processes, quicker throughout—all these and more will inevitably result if managers apply the new technology well. With a clear sense of the challenges ahead, the authors provide a framework for thinking about those consequences.
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The guidelines for "Product of Canada" and "Made in Canada" claims promote compliance with subsection 5 1 of the Food and Drugs Act and subsection 6 1 of the Safe Food for Canadians Act , which prohibit false and misleading claims. The use of "Product of Canada" and "Made in Canada" claims is voluntary. However, once a company chooses to make one of these claims, the product to which it is applied should meet these guidelines.
The guidelines for "Product of Canada" and "Made in Canada" claims apply to foods sold at all levels of trade, including bulk sale or wholesale foods for further processing. They also apply to claims made in advertising and by restaurants.
All ingredients and their components that contribute to the food, regardless of their generation when they were added, must be considered when assessing "Product of Canada" and "Made in Canada" claims. A food product may use the claim "Product of Canada" when all or virtually all major ingredients, processing, and labour used to make the food product are Canadian.
This means that all the significant ingredients in a food product are Canadian in origin and that non-Canadian material is negligible. For example, a cookie that is manufactured in Canada from oatmeal, enriched flour, butter, honey and milk from Canada, and imported vanilla, may use the claim "Product of Canada" even if the vitamins in the flour and the vanilla are not from Canada. The claim "Canadian" is considered to be the same as a "Product of Canada" claim and any product carrying this claim must meet the criteria for a "Product of Canada" claim described above.
Generally, products that are exported and re-imported into Canada would not be able to make a "Product of Canada" claim. A "Made in Canada" claim with a qualifying statement can be used on a food product when the last substantial transformation of the product occurred in Canada, even if some ingredients are from other countries. A substantial transformation occurs when a food product undergoes processing which changes its nature and becomes a new product bearing a new name commonly understood by the consumer.
For example, the processing of cheese, dough, sauce and other ingredients to create a pizza would be considered a substantial transformation. If the "Made in Canada" claim is used, it must also include a qualifying statement to indicate that the food product is made in Canada from imported ingredients or a combination of imported and domestic ingredients. The qualifying statements that can be used include "Made in Canada from domestic and imported ingredients" or "Made in Canada from imported ingredients".
For example, a claim such as "Proudly Made in Canada" would need a qualifying statement if the product contains imported ingredients as this claim includes the phrase "Made in Canada".
When a food is made with ingredients that are all sourced from outside of Canada, the label would state "Made in Canada from imported ingredients". For example, a cookie manufactured in Canada from imported flour, oatmeal, shortening and sugar may be labelled or advertised with the claim "Made in Canada from imported ingredients".
When a food contains both domestic and imported ingredients, the label would state "Made in Canada from domestic and imported ingredients". This claim may be used on a product that contains a mixture of imported and domestic ingredients, regardless of the level of Canadian content in the product.
For example, a cookie manufactured in Canada using Canadian flour, oatmeal and shortening and imported sugar may be labelled or advertised with the claim "Made in Canada from domestic and imported ingredients". To provide clarity and consistency for consumers, when a company chooses to use the "Made in Canada" claim, the qualifying statement should be presented in a standard format: "from domestic and imported ingredients".
However, it would be considered acceptable if the order were reversed, if there were a higher proportion of imported ingredients than domestic ingredients. The use of "Product of Canada" and the qualified "Made in Canada" claims are encouraged to ensure clarity for the consumer and to enhance their ability to identify Canadian made foods.
However, other more specific statements or claims that describe the Canadian value added may be used without further qualification, provided they are truthful and not misleading for consumers.
The claim "Canadian" is considered to be the same as a "Product of Canada" claim. As such, all or virtually all major ingredients, processing, and labour used to make the food product must be Canadian. For example, the claim "Canadian" on a container of frozen lasagna would mean that the food meets the "Product of Canada" criteria. This also applies when the claim is used to describe an ingredient within the food.
For example, if the claim "Canadian cheddar cheese" is used on a package of cheddar cheese sauce, all or virtually all major ingredients, processing, and labour used to make the cheddar cheese in the sauce must be Canadian. When this type of claim is used to describe a single component ingredient within the food, all of the ingredient s and, if any, derivatives of that ingredient in the food must be Canadian.
For example, if the claim "Contains Canadian blueberries" is used on a prepackaged blueberry pie, all of the blueberries, as well as any blueberry juice concentrate or derivative, must be Canadian. The use of a voluntary multiple country of origin statement that references Canada e. Products that contain foreign ingredients, regardless of their source, are not eligible to bear a "Product of Canada" claim.
Declaring multiple countries of origin on the label could result in false information and, as such, could be considered false and misleading. Although products that contain foreign ingredients are not eligible to bear a "Product of Canada" claim, they may be eligible to make a qualified "Made in Canada" claim, provided that the last substantial transformation of the product occurred in Canada.
A blended claim, such as "A blend of Canadian naming the product and [Naming the country] naming the product ", may be considered acceptable e. Separate requirements may exist for commodities that require a country of origin statement. These are summarized in the Food-specific labelling requirements of the Industry Labelling Tool. Animals are considered Canadian if they are born or hatched, raised and slaughtered in Canada or, in the case of feeder cattle, if they have spent a period of at least 60 days in Canada prior to slaughter in Canada.
The day residency period is based on international animal health standards. Such animals are fed, raised and slaughtered in Canada according to Canadian requirements.
This review will determine how to apply the "Product of Canada" claim to meat products while respecting the principles of the "Product of Canada" guidelines and not disrupting international commerce or be contrary to trade rules. Meat from imported hatching eggs, including those hatched in transit, would meet the "Product of Canada" guidelines provided that the chick was raised, slaughtered and processed in Canada.
Wild fish and seafood products can be labelled "Product of Canada" when caught by vessels in Canadian waters or adjacent waters as per Canadian regulatory fishing quotas and the products from the fish and seafood are processed in a Canadian establishment using Canadian ingredients. In the case of farmed fish and seafood, the farm must be located in Canada, and the processing must occur in a Canadian establishment with the use of Canadian ingredients.
Eggs from imported hens and milk from imported cows would qualify for the "Product of Canada" claim provided that the hen laid its eggs in Canada, and the cow is milked in Canada. The use of the Canadian coat of arms and the Canadian flag are both protected under the Trade-marks Act , subsection 9 1. See Government of Canada trade-marks for more information. The Canadian coat of arms cannot be used, unless permission is granted by the Department of Canadian Heritage.
Requests for permission may be made to:. The national flag with the point maple leaf and one or two bars cannot be used unless permission for its use is granted by the Department of Canadian Heritage. There is however, no objection to the use of an point maple leaf without bars. The maple leaf should not be used on an imported food product since it may give the consumer the false impression that the product is of domestic origin.
The use of the maple leaf or other similar symbol may be used on food products without further permission. The use of these vignettes on their own does not always imply that the product is wholly or partially Canadian e.
However, depending on how the maple leaf is used, it could imply a "Product of Canada" claim and in such situations, the product must follow the criteria for a "Product of Canada" claim. In order to ensure that the use of the maple leaf or other similar symbol will not mislead the consumer, it is recommended that an accompanying domestic content statement be placed in close proximity to the vignette.
The following terms or references have regulated requirements and, as such, are not subject to the guidelines for "Product of Canada" claims:. Report a problem on this page.
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This article throws light upon the ten main constituents of cost estimation. The constituents are: 1. Design Period 2. Drafting Period 3. Time and Motion Studies 4.
Mass production , also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of large amounts of standardized products, including and especially on assembly lines. Together with job production and batch production , it is one of the three main production methods. The New York Times used the term in the title of an article that appeared before publication of the Britannica article. The concepts of mass production are applied to various kinds of products, from fluids and particulates handled in bulk such as food , fuel , chemicals , and mined minerals to discrete solid parts such as fasteners to assemblies of such parts such as household appliances and automobiles. Mass production is a diverse field, but it can generally be contrasted with craft production or distributed manufacturing. Some mass production techniques, such as standardized sizes and production lines, predate the Industrial Revolution by many centuries; however, it was not until the introduction of machine tools and techniques to produce interchangeable parts were developed in the mid 19th century that modern mass production was possible. Mass production involves making many copies of products, very quickly, using assembly line techniques to send partially complete products to workers who each work on an individual step, rather than having a worker work on a whole product from start to finish.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Multi-purpose Home Cleaner live demo By #Home Care Products-Buy it -08347893949/09723044994
The guidelines for "Product of Canada" and "Made in Canada" claims promote compliance with subsection 5 1 of the Food and Drugs Act and subsection 6 1 of the Safe Food for Canadians Act , which prohibit false and misleading claims. The use of "Product of Canada" and "Made in Canada" claims is voluntary. However, once a company chooses to make one of these claims, the product to which it is applied should meet these guidelines. The guidelines for "Product of Canada" and "Made in Canada" claims apply to foods sold at all levels of trade, including bulk sale or wholesale foods for further processing. They also apply to claims made in advertising and by restaurants. All ingredients and their components that contribute to the food, regardless of their generation when they were added, must be considered when assessing "Product of Canada" and "Made in Canada" claims. A food product may use the claim "Product of Canada" when all or virtually all major ingredients, processing, and labour used to make the food product are Canadian. This means that all the significant ingredients in a food product are Canadian in origin and that non-Canadian material is negligible.
Plan for Economies of Scope
Mass production , application of the principles of specialization, division of labour , and standardization of parts to the manufacture of goods. Such manufacturing processes attain high rates of output at low unit cost, with lower costs expected as volume rises. Mass production methods are based on two general principles: 1 the division and specialization of human labour and 2 the use of tools, machinery, and other equipment, usually automated, in the production of standard, interchangeable parts and products. The use of modern methods of mass production has brought such improvements in the cost, quality, quantity, and variety of goods available that the largest global population in history is now sustained at the highest general standard of living. The principle of the division of labour and the resulting specialization of skills can be found in many human activities, and there are records of its application to manufacturing in ancient Greece. The first unmistakable examples of manufacturing operations carefully designed to reduce production costs by specialized labour and the use of machines appeared in the 18th century in England. The last three inventions improved the speed and quality of thread-spinning operations. A sixth invention, the steam engine , perfected by James Watt , was the key to further rapid development. After making major improvements in steam engine design in , Watt continued his development and refinement of the engine until, in , he successfully used one in a cotton mill. Once human, animal, and water power could be replaced with a reliable low-cost source of motive energy, the Industrial Revolution was clearly established, and the subsequent centuries would witness invention and innovation the likes of which could never have been imagined. In Adam Smith , in his Wealth of Nations , observed the benefits of the specialization of labour in the manufacture of pins.
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Consumer goods are products bought for consumption by the average consumer. Alternatively called final goods, consumer goods are the end result of production and manufacturing and are what a consumer will see stocked on the store shelf. Clothing, food, and jewelry are all examples of consumer goods. Basic or raw materials, such as copper, are not considered consumer goods because they must be transformed into usable products. Consumer goods are goods sold to consumers for use in the home or school or for recreational or personal use. There are three main types of consumer goods: durable goods, nondurable goods, and services. Durable goods are consumer goods that have a long-life span e. Examples include bicycles and refrigerators. Nondurable goods are consumed in less than three years and have short lifespans.
10 Main Constituents of Cost Estimation
Production methods fall into three main categories: job one-off production , batch multiple items, one step at a time for all items , and flow multiple items, all steps in process at once for separate items. Job Production is used when a product is produced with the labor of one or few workers and is rarely used for bulk and large scale production. It is mainly used for one-off products or prototypes hence also known as Prototype Production , as it is inefficient; however, quality is greatly enhanced with job production compared to other methods. Individual wedding cakes and made-to-measure suits are examples of job production. New small firms often use job production before they get a chance or have the means to expand. Job Production is highly motivating for workers because it gives the workers an opportunity to produce the whole product and take pride in it. Batch production is the method used to produce or process any product of the in groups or batches where the products in the batch go through the whole production process together.
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Methods of production
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