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Copper has been used in electrical wiring since the invention of the electromagnet and the telegraph in the s. Copper is the electrical conductor in many categories of electrical wiring. Electrical wiring in buildings is the most important market for the copper industry. Electrical conductivity is a measure of how well a material transports an electric charge. This is an essential property in electrical wiring systems.
The theory of metals in their solid state  helps to explain the unusually high electrical conductivity of copper. In a copper atom , the outermost 4s energy zone, or conduction band , is only half filled, so many electrons are able to carry electric current. When an electric field is applied to a copper wire, the conduction of electrons accelerates towards the electropositive end, thereby creating a current.
These electrons encounter resistance to their passage by colliding with impurity atoms, vacancies, lattice ions, and imperfections. The average distance travelled between collisions, defined as the " mean free path ", is inversely proportional to the resistivity of the metal. What is unique about copper is its long mean free path approximately atomic spacings at room temperature.
This mean free path increases rapidly as copper is chilled. Because of its superior conductivity, annealed copper became the international standard to which all other electrical conductors are compared. This copper is at least ETP copper contains a small percentage of oxygen 0.
If high conductivity copper needs to be welded or brazed or used in a reducing atmosphere, then oxygen-free copper CWA or ASTM designation C may be used. Several electrically conductive metals are less dense than copper, but require larger cross sections to carry the same current and may not be usable when limited space is a major requirement.
The need to increase the thickness of aluminium wire restricts its use in several applications,  such as in small motors and automobiles. In some applications such as aerial electric power transmission cables, copper is rarely used.
Silver , a precious metal , is the only metal with a higher electrical conductivity than copper. Tensile strength measures the force required to pull an object such as rope, wire, or a structural beam to the point where it breaks.
The tensile strength of a material is the maximum amount of tensile stress it can take before breaking. Ductility is a material's ability to deform under tensile stress. This is often characterized by the material's ability to be stretched into a wire. Ductility is especially important in metalworking because materials that crack or break under stress cannot be hammered, rolled, or drawn drawing is a process that uses tensile forces to stretch metal.
Copper has a higher ductility than alternate metal conductors with the exception of gold and silver. Usually, the stronger a metal is, the less pliable it is. This is not the case with copper. A unique combination of high strength and high ductility makes copper ideal for wiring systems. At junction boxes and at terminations, for example, copper can be bent, twisted, and pulled without stretching or breaking.
This process has adverse effects on electrical systems: terminations can become loose, causing connections to heat up or create dangerous arcing.
Copper has excellent creep characteristics that minimizes loosening at connections. For other metal conductors that creep, extra maintenance is required to check terminals periodically and ensure that screws remain tightened to prevent arcing and overheating. Corrosion is the unwanted breakdown and weakening of a material due to chemical reactions. Copper generally resists corrosion from moisture, humidity, industrial pollution, and other atmospheric influences. However, any corrosion oxides, chlorides, and sulfides that do form on copper are somewhat conductive.
Under many application conditions copper is higher on the galvanic series than other common structural metals, meaning that copper wire is less likely to be corroded in wet conditions. However, any more anodic metals in contact with copper will be corroded since they will essentially be sacrificed to the copper.
Metals and other solid materials expand upon heating and contract upon cooling. This is an undesirable occurrence in electrical systems. Copper has a low coefficient of thermal expansion for an electrical conducting material.
Aluminium, an alternate common conductor, expands nearly one third more than copper under increasing temperatures. By using proper hardware, such as spring pressure connections and cupped or split washers at the joint, it may be possible to create aluminium joints that compare in quality to copper joints. Thermal conductivity is the ability of a material to conduct heat. In electrical systems, high thermal conductivity is important for dissipating waste heat, particularly at terminations and connections.
Soldering is a process whereby two or more metals are joined together by a heating process. This is a desirable property in electrical systems. Copper is readily soldered to make durable connections when necessary. The strength, hardness, and flexibility of copper make it very easy to work with. Copper wiring can be installed simply and easily with no special tools, washers, pigtails, or joint compounds.
Its flexibility makes it easy to join, while its hardness helps keep connections securely in place. It can be bent or twisted easily without breaking. It can be stripped and terminated during installation or service with far less danger of nicks or breaks. And it can be connected without the use of special lugs and fittings. The combination of all of these factors makes it easy for electricians to install copper wire.
Solid wire consists of one strand of copper metal wire, bare or surrounded by an insulator. Single-strand copper conductors are typically used as magnet wire in motors and transformers. They are relatively rigid, do not bend easily, and are typically installed in permanent, infrequently handled, and low flex applications. Stranded wire has a group of copper wires braided or twisted together. Stranded wire is more flexible and easier to install than a large single-strand wire of the same cross section.
Stranding improves wire life in applications with vibration. A particular cross-section of a stranded conductor gives it essentially the same resistance characteristics as a single-strand conductor, but with added flexibility. A copper cable consists of two or more copper wires running side by side and bonded, twisted or braided together to form a single assembly. Electrical cables may be made more flexible by stranding the wires.
Copper wires in a cable may be bare or they may be plated to reduce oxidation with a thin layer of another metal, most often tin but sometimes gold or silver.
Plating may lengthen wire life and makes soldering easier. Twisted pair and coaxial cables are designed to inhibit electromagnetic interference, prevent radiation of signals, and to provide transmission lines with defined characteristics. Shielded cables are encased in foil or wire mesh. Electrolytic-tough pitch ETP copper, a high-purity copper that contains oxygen as an alloying agent, represents the bulk of electrical conductor applications because of its high electrical conductivity and improved annealability.
ETP copper is used for power transmission , power distribution , and telecommunications. Oxygen-free coppers are used to resist hydrogen embrittlement when extensive amounts of cold work is needed, and for applications requiring higher ductility e.
When hydrogen embrittlement is a concern and low electrical resistivity is not required, phosphorus may be added to copper. For certain applications, copper alloy conductors are preferred instead of pure copper, especially when higher strengths or improved abrasion and corrosion resistance properties are required.
However, relative to pure copper, the higher strength and corrosion resistance benefits that are offered by copper alloys are offset by their lower electrical conductivities. Design engineers weigh the advantages and disadvantages of the various types of copper and copper alloy conductors when determining which type to specify for a specific electrical application. An example of a copper alloy conductor is cadmium copper wire, which is used for railroad electrification in North America.
Electrical wiring distributes electric power inside residential, commercial, or industrial buildings, mobile homes, recreational vehicles, boats, and substations at voltages up to V.
The thickness of the wire is based on electric current requirements in conjunction with safe operating temperatures. Solid wire is used for smaller diameters; thicker diameters are stranded to provide flexibility.
Over the life of a building wire system, copper can also be the most economical conductor. Copper building wire requires less insulation and can be installed in smaller conduits than when lower-conductivity conductors are used. Also, comparatively, more copper wire can fit in a given conduit than conductors with lower conductivities. Copper building wire is compatible with brass and quality plated screws.
The wire provides connections that will not corrode or creep. It is not, however, compatible with aluminium wire or connectors. If the two metals are joined, a galvanic reaction can occur. Anodic corrosion during the reaction can disintegrate the aluminium.
This is why most appliance and electrical equipment manufacturers use copper lead wires for connections to building wiring systems. In all-copper homes, copper conductors are used in circuit breaker panels, branch circuit wiring to outlets, switches, lighting fixtures and the like , and in dedicated branches serving heavy-load appliances such as ranges, ovens, clothes dryers and air conditioners.
Attempts to replace copper with aluminium in building wire were curtailed in most countries when it was found that aluminium connections gradually loosened due to their inherent slow creep, combined with the high resistivity and heat generation of aluminium oxidation at joints.
Spring-loaded contacts have largely alleviated this problem with aluminium conductors in building wire, but some building codes still forbid the use of aluminium. For branch-circuit sizes, virtually all basic wiring for lights, outlets and switches is made from copper. Electrical wiring codes give the allowable current rating for standard sizes of conductors. The current rating of a conductor varies depending on the size, allowable maximum temperature, and the operating environment of the conductor.
Conductors used in areas where cool air is free to circulate around the wires are generally permitted to carry more current than the small sized conductor encased in an underground conduit run with many similar conductors adjacent to it. The practical temperature ratings of insulated copper conductors are mostly due to the limitations of the insulation material or of the temperature rating of the attached equipment. Twisted pair cabling is the most popular network cable and is often used in data networks for short and medium length connections up to meters or feet.
Unshielded twisted pair UTP cables are the primary cable type for telephone usage. In the late 20th century, UTPs emerged as the most common cable in computer networking cables, especially as patch cables or temporary network connections.
We sometimes forget that many cables are not designed to conduct electrical power or signals, such as cables which support bridges, actuate ailerons, and tow cars, for example. There are, however, similarities between mechanical and electrical wire and cable — at least in terms of their means of manufacture. As strands of wire are made, they are drawn through progressively smaller dies. This is true of all wire. Diamond dies are used, due to their extreme hardness, and the fact that they retain their precision size for a long time.
Connectors & Cables
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Non-ferrous wires and cables
A wire is a single, usually cylindrical , flexible strand or rod of metal. Wires are used to bear mechanical loads or electricity and telecommunications signals. Wire is commonly formed by drawing the metal through a hole in a die or draw plate.
It is our aim to not only deliver optimal products to our clients, but also convince them with our quality, promptness and excellent services. Our products are part of numerous applications. Discover the key industries that rely on solutions by Coroplast. At Coroplast, diverse job opportunities are waiting for you. Whether professional, graduate, student or pupil — we are looking forward to your application! More and more people and goods need to be transported every day. Automotive wires and cables are consequently in greater demand than ever, which is why our product portfolio has been regularly expanding. The use of state-of-the-art insulation and sheathing materials such as thermoplastics or silicone rubber has been particularly helpful in successfully enlarging our range. We are continually striving to improve our company and our products, to enable us to fulfil the complex product and process requirements of automotive customers. We see ourselves as a pioneer in electric mobility. Our innovative HV cables product group is considered the global benchmark and a synonym of quality and safety in any vehicle.
High-Performance Wire and Cable
Essentially, the only difference is in nomenclature. An electrical wiring harness, also known as a wire harness, cable harness, cable assembly, wiring assembly or wiring loom, is an assembly of electrical cables or wires which transmit signals or electrical power throughout an aircraft. Today, you find these products typically referenced as electrical wiring harnesses or wire harness assemblies. Thick metal or non-metal cable lines were, and still are, used to secure large objects. As technology progressed the phrase electrical cable, then electrical wiring harness developed.
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Copper has been used in electrical wiring since the invention of the electromagnet and the telegraph in the s. Copper is the electrical conductor in many categories of electrical wiring. Electrical wiring in buildings is the most important market for the copper industry. Electrical conductivity is a measure of how well a material transports an electric charge. This is an essential property in electrical wiring systems. The theory of metals in their solid state  helps to explain the unusually high electrical conductivity of copper.
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Many requirements in Article are often overlooked or taken for granted, including many details on exactly how to install and properly use everyday devices that are probably the most used items within our electrical systems. First, in order for us to have a common understanding, we need to look at the definitions of the devices we just mentioned. These two terms are not interchangeable. As you can picture, many of these are hardwired connections.
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Итак, получается, что в начале галактической истории - до возникновения Земли и Солнца - в окрестностях нашей Галактики все-таки появлялись космоплаватели, просуществовавшие, как правило, менее двадцати миллионов лет, и лишь один из этих видов ухитрился протянуть шестьдесят миллионов?.
- Именно. Теперь я добавлю еще один параметр. Если космоплаватели сумели оставить пределы собственной системы и основать постоянную колонию в другой - чего вы, люди, еще не сделали, - тогда их экспансию засвидетельствует появление огоньков того же цвета в иных звездных системах.