The MB 25 fills and caps micro vials and integrates with a robotic tray loader. Optionally, the system can be ordered with net weigh filling that ensures precise amounts of product. In a net weigh system, the micro vial is weighed before it is filled and again after filling. The tare and gross weights are compared to preprogrammed values in the weigh cell HMI, and incorrect weights are rejected as bad fills. After the filling process, a two-stage, servo-driven capping system first picks and places a cap and applies a slight amount of pre-torque to seat it. The starwheel then indexes the micro vial to the final torque station where a preprogrammed amount of torque is applied.
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packagingdigest201109-dlVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: HOACO First Aid Bandage Machine
E-mail: gourav gmail. Purpose: The present study designed to evaluate entrance and exit doses for out of the radiation field in external beam radiotherapy EBRT. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of non tissue equivalent NTE thermoluminescence dosimeters TLD for in vivo dosimetry of out of the radiation field dose measurements.
Materials and Methods: All the measurements were performed in 10 head and neck patients age range, 35—46 years; mean, 44 years treated with two parallel opposed lateral fields on Bhabhatron-II TAW Telecolbalt unit Panacea Medical Technologies, Bengaluru, India using source to surface distance SSD technique.
The CaSO4:Dy discs were placed at the level of the eyes of the patient for a single right lateral treatment field only. This methodology provided the set up to assess out of field entrance and exit radiation dose to eye. TLD chips were also placed exactly in the identical places in the next treatment fraction of same patient. The physical data measured were separation distance at the level of eye, distance between radiation field edge and ipsilateral right eye at SSD.
The distances were calculated for radiation beam exit from isocenter at the exit surface of the patient. Results and Discussion: The distance between radiation field edge and ipsilateral eye at SSD was measured in the range of 2. The distances of separation at the level of eye, entrance and exit of edge of beam from isocenter were in the range of 11cmcm, 7. It was obvious to observe with theoretical calculations using radiation divergence property that the primary radiation beam was not passing through contralateral eye.
The contralateral eye was away from the exit of edge of radiation beam in all the cases and distances were found in the range of 0. However, when the doses were analyzed for non tissue equivalent CaSO4:Dy discs and it was surprising to note that the exit dose to contralateral eye Dexit were measured 1. To investigate this over-response, the doses were measured with tissue equivalent TLD chips in the identical conditions.
Thus, the possible cause for this over-response in NTE dosimeter is increase in the intensity of secondary electrons and low energy scattered photons reaching to dosimeter at the exit surface of the patient during out of field measurements. The results of this study suggested that non tissue equivalent CaSO4:Dy discs were not the dosimeter of choice for out of field exit dose measurements. One should be precautious to use non tissue equivalent CaSO4:Dy dosimeters for out of field exit dose measurements.
Further study needs to be performed to deal this over-response using either appropriate correction factors or build up caps. However, studies of buildup caps should be conducted for out of field measurements. In addition, special attention should be paid to the selection of the appropriate materials for buildup caps, taking into account the impact of low energy radiation and attenuation of the beam. Conclusion: The non tissue equivalent dosimeters were not the promising dosimeters for out of field exit dose measurements.
The research outputs of this study may be helpful for the selection of the appropriate in vivo dosimeter suitable for clinical use for out of the radiation field dose measurement conditions in radiotherapy. Department of Radiation Oncology, Dr. E-mail: goswamishruti gmail. Introduction: With the state of the art techniques now Radiotherapy is a proven means to cure and improve the quality life of cancer patients.
Success of advanced radiotherapy highly depends upon the precession and accuracy. For accurate and precise delivery of the prescribed dose to the target volume, it is necessary to draw optimum CTV to PTV margin.
To determine the margin, we have to consider factors like proper target delineation, use of proper immobilization device, proper patient positioning etc. Accurate patient positioning can be ensured with IGRT.
Materials and Methods: A prospective study was done selecting 30 patients, 10 from each site Brain, Head and Neck and Pelvis. Initially all patients underwent CT simulation with slice thickness of 3mm in supine positions. On the very first day the shifting were made to the planned isocenter from the reference fiducial markers and CBCT were taken for each patient.
Any error in the target isocenter was rectified based on the CBCT verification and the corrected isocenter were marked which would be used for set up in the subsequent days.
The target positional errors were corrected by adjusting the patient position, through shifting the patient using the automatic motorized couch in all three translational dimensions. Result: A total of CBCT scans for brain, for head and neck and scans were acquired for pelvis. Shifting errors for each site for the population of patients were analyzed.
The interfraction shifts in brain was From these data, calculated margins are 5. In current practice in our institute, we are giving isotropic margin of 5mm in brain and head and neck and 10mm in pelvis region.
It is imperative to that every institute which practices advanced techniques calculates its own margins based on the shifting errors. Conclusion: The results of the study will be helpful to establish a standard CTV to PTV margin as an institutional protocol for treating brain, head and neck and pelvis region.
Introduction: The x-ray computed tomography CT is an imaging modality to produce three dimensional thin cross sectional images of the patient body. In CT the radiation beams were not contiguous and unidirectional around the patient contour the maximum dose does not lie on the skin surface and is not an appropriate indices for risk analysis in CT.
The CTDIvol indices does not estimate patient dose, as it does not take patient's size into consideration. The actual dose received by a patient during CT examination, not only depends on selected scanner parameters but also on the dimensions and composition of the body part being scanned. Purpose: The aim of the present work is to reports data on radiation exposure to the patient in CT examinations using size specific dose estimates SSDE.
Materials and Methods: The radiation exposure was estimated retrospectively in forty adult patients for head, chest, pelvis and abdominal CT procedures performed on a third generation 16 slice helical CT scanner. The water equivalent diameter Dw of this water cylinder is used to represent the absorption and scattering in the body and estimation of dose to the patients. The CTDIp in 10 and 16 cm phantom is 2. The measured CTDIvol value in 10 and 16 cm diameter phantoms is respectively 2.
Conclusions: The dosimetry on CT procedures in this study is an attempt to improve reporting of patient's doses based on CTDIvol indices.
The application of SSDE methodology provides a better estimation of patient dose by including variation in size of individual patient into consideration and thus the relative radiation risk associated with CT examinations.
E-mail: rajupsrivasstava gmail. Purpose: Radiation treatments have become increasingly more complex with the development of volumetric modulated arc therapy VMAT and the use of stereotactic body radiation therapy SBRT. SBRT involves the delivery of substantially larger doses over fewer fractions than conventional therapy. Octavius 4D is a very effective device in radiotherapy treatment quality assurance QA , due to its simple set-up and analysis package.
This study aimed to analyze the dose distribution using Octavius 4D phantom dosimetric tools in conducting pretreatment quality assurance for lung cancer stereotactic body radiation therapy SBRT plans.
Materials and Methods: Five patients with lung cancer treated via SBRT were randomly selected, and their treatment plans were generated using the Eclipse treatment planning system Eclipse version It consists of an ion chamber array embedded in a cylindrical phantom. The phantom is connected to an inclinometer that is attached to the gantry so that the system is capable to rotate following the gantry orientation in such a way that the array is always perpendicular to the beam axis.
Dose distribution and gantry angle are registered as a function of time. The Octavius 4D phantom and portal dosimetry were used to measure the actual dose distribution at the linear accelerator, and these measured doses were compared to with the calculated doses. Gamma analysis was employed in verifying the correspondence between the dose distributions. Results and Discussion: The Octavius 4D phantom shows good agreements between calculated and measured dose.
The mean gamma passing rates gamma criteria and the standard deviations were Thus, the approach provides a fully automated, fast and easy QA procedure for plan-specific pre-treatment dosimetric verification. It is however mandatory to calibrate for a field size and a dose rate close to the patient treatment plan. E-mail: rahulchaudhary yahoo. Objective: The purpose of this work is to study the impact of motion parameters amplitude and frequency and target size on 4D imaging using indigenously developed Four Dimensional Radiotherapy Phantom FDRP.
Materials and Methods: The in-house fabricated 4D radiotherapy imaging and dosimetry phantom was used for the imaging study. The developed phantom has three different inserts which represents target sizes of 1 cm, 1. The targets were driven in sinusoidal motion pattern in the longitudinal direction with different combinations of the amplitudes of 0. For the performance validation of phantom, the set values of amplitudes and frequencies of motion were compared with the values measured by the tracking Varian RPM system.
The phantom was imaged both in the static and dynamic state. The images of the moving target in different phases were contoured and GTV final was obtained by summing the target volumes of the individual phases. The effects of varying the amplitudes, frequencies of the motion on the distortion of target volume were also evaluated.
Results: The values of amplitude and time period, measured by the tracking system matched well with the values set on the FDRP. The relative distortion in the final GTV ranges from 1 to 2. The distortion in the GTV increases with amplitude of the motion for given target size and frequency. For the target size of 1. For the target size of 2.
Motion parameters have significant impact on target volume obtained using 4D imaging system in comparison to the static target.
E-mail: ranjna08 yahoo. Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy IMRT allows the three-dimensional dose distribution with computer based optimization techniques using user-specified absorbed-dose and dose-volume constraints in specified target volume and normal tissues.
Dose prescription, recording, reporting and delivery play an important role in radiation therapy outcome analysis. In IMRT treatment user defined acquired inhomogeneity within target and sharp dose gradient at edge of target makes traditional dose prescription Dmax, Dmin, Dmean method less relevant and to overcome these issues International commission on radiation units and measurements ICRU provides guidelines for reporting doses in ICRU 83 Report.
Dosimetry data for these patients were collected and analysed. Eclipse version. The actual Dmin. The mean dose to the parotid was Gy depending on overlapping inside PTV. Purpose: Dosimetric comparison between out of field dose measured in a radiation field analyzer RFA and implemented in Eclipse treatment planning system of version Materials and Methods: The data's were collected from Eclipse treatment planning system version Measurements were taken for different distances 1,2,3,5,10, 15 cm from the field edge for different field sizes 5x15,10x15,15x15 using energy 6 and 15MV.
All measurements were performed in a Varian Clinac iX linear accelerator equipped with a millennium leaf collimator and On Board Imager.
The results were cross compared with Eclipse treatment planning system. Measurements where carried out for the same distance and field sizes using 6MV and 10MV flattened and unflattened beams. Up to build up region the measured and calculated doses are in good agreement a slight overestimation of the calculated dose observed for 15 MV in this region; after the build-up region the dose difference increases with depth.
By increasing the distances from the field edge, the out of field dose shows a gradual decrease after cm distance away from the field edge for all the three shielding conditions and energy.
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ESS Technologies: Vial filler/capper
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Green Biopolymers and their Nanocomposites
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Application No. Provisional Application No. The present application is also related to U.
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E-mail: gourav gmail. Purpose: The present study designed to evaluate entrance and exit doses for out of the radiation field in external beam radiotherapy EBRT. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of non tissue equivalent NTE thermoluminescence dosimeters TLD for in vivo dosimetry of out of the radiation field dose measurements. Materials and Methods: All the measurements were performed in 10 head and neck patients age range, 35—46 years; mean, 44 years treated with two parallel opposed lateral fields on Bhabhatron-II TAW Telecolbalt unit Panacea Medical Technologies, Bengaluru, India using source to surface distance SSD technique. The CaSO4:Dy discs were placed at the level of the eyes of the patient for a single right lateral treatment field only. This methodology provided the set up to assess out of field entrance and exit radiation dose to eye.
WO2012009706A1 - Drop generating device - Google Patents
Что происходит. - Полный и всеобщий хаос, - проговорил он с крайне расстроенным видом. - Что ты имеешь в виду, Роберт. - Элли внезапно испугалась. - С Никки все в порядке. - С ней все хорошо, Элли. повсюду люди мрут пачками. Мы не знаем. Час назад Эд Стаффорд упал и умер, прежде чем я успел осмотреть .
Я подготовила карты с символами, понятными на обоих языках; во всяком случае, даже самый тупой человек способен за один урок заучить цифры октопауков от одного до семи и их символы для четырех мастей. Все сработало просто великолепно.
Мы здесь пленники, это очевидно. Я позволил своему сыну родиться в мире, где он навсегда останется пленником.
Должно быть, инженеры Узла, - ответил Ричард. - Впрочем, откуда нам знать. Мы, люди, только добавили новые черты к нашему поселению. Возможно, кто-то из тех, что обитали здесь прежде нас, и построили некоторые из этих великолепных сооружений, а может быть, и .
Насколько будет отличаться Земля от той, какой она могла. - Но представление человечества о себе должно перемениться, - возразила Николь. - Ведь знание того, что во Вселенной существует или существовал в какую-то далекую эпоху разум, способный создать межпланетный автоматический корабль величиной с очень большой город, нельзя отбросить как незначительный факт.