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Warehouse commercial materials and products electrical insulating, carbon and electrometallic

Warehouse commercial materials and products electrical insulating, carbon and electrometallic

Government Printing Office, June For sale by the Superintendent of Documents U. New structural materials—ceramics, polymers, metals, or hybrid materials derived from these, called composites—open a promising avenue to renewed international com- petitiveness of U. There will be many opportunities for use of the materials in aerospace, automotive, industrial, medical, and construction appli- cations in the next 25 years. This assessment addresses the impact of advanced struc- tural materials on the competitiveness of the U.

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4100800 Advanced Materials by Design

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Government Printing Office, June For sale by the Superintendent of Documents U. New structural materials—ceramics, polymers, metals, or hybrid materials derived from these, called composites—open a promising avenue to renewed international com- petitiveness of U.

There will be many opportunities for use of the materials in aerospace, automotive, industrial, medical, and construction appli- cations in the next 25 years. This assessment addresses the impact of advanced struc- tural materials on the competitiveness of the U. This assessment draws on this body of work and presents a broad picture of where these technologies stand today and where they are likely to go in the future.

OTA appreciates the assistance provided by the contractors, advisory panel, and workshop participants, as well as the many reviewers whose com- ments helped to ensure the accuracy of the report. Advanced Materials by Design Advisory Panel. Rodney W. Wilkins Director James W. The panel does not, however, necessarily approve, disapprove, or endorse this assessment. OTA assumes full responsibility for the assessment and the accuracy of its contents. LioneI S.

Page Overview. Executive Summary. Advanced Ceramics. Polymer Matrix Composites. Metal Matrix Composites. Impacts on the Basic Metals Industries. Industrial Criteria for Investment. International Business Trends.

Policy Issues and Options. Contractors and Workshop Participants. Overview New structural materials technologies will be onstrated in large-scale commercial applications. Today, for instance, materials ac- solution of remaining technical and economic count for as much as 30 to 50 percent of the costs problems. However, through well-coordinated of most manufactured products. New materials government-industry efforts, several countries, that can reduce overall production costs and im- notably Japan, have initiated more aggressive pro- prove performance can provide a competitive grams to commercialize their evolving materials edge in many products, including aircraft, auto- technologies.

These programs have succeeded mobiles, industrial machinery, and sporting goods. Remarkable advances in structural materials products. Concern about the U. New materials such as ceramics and com- tional program to ensure that the United States posites offer superior properties e.

What is more, the materials them- ceramics, polymers, or composites, which gen- selves can be designed to have the properties erally consist of fibers of one material held to- required by a given application. Use of such de- gether by a matrix of a second material. This assessment focuses on three prom- ising categories of structural materials: ceramics Although the United States has achieved a including ceramic matrix composites , polymer strong position in advanced materials technol- matrix composites, and metal matrix composites.

The technologies are still in their in- could take to accelerate the commercialization fancy, and cost-effective use of advanced mate- of advanced materials technologies in the United rials and fabrication processes is yet to be dem- States.

THE U. However, by the year , U. This gross national product, balance of trade, and em- estimate includes only the value of the materials ployment. These suppliers are also seeking commer- ogies in the United States. At present, In contrast to the market pull orientation of though, advanced materials developed for mili- firms in the United States, end users in foreign tary applications are expensive, and fabrication competitor nations, notably in Japan, are pursu- processes are poorly suited for mass production.

This ag- ning horizon of most firms. In many cases, 10 to gressive approach will probably give these firms 20 years will be required to solve remaining tech- a significant advantage in exploiting global mar- nical problems and to develop rapid, low-cost kets as they develop.

OTA finds that manufac- manufacturing methods. Investment risks are turing experience over time with advanced ma- especially high for commercial end users because terials will be a prerequisite for competing in the costs of scaling up laboratory processes for those markets; U. Hence, there is very little commercial turing problems have been solved by others. First, the high cost of military velopment of advanced materials through fund- materials and fabrication processes limits their ing of basic research, technology demonstration acceptance in the commercial sector.

Second, to programs, and military and aerospace procure- deny these advanced materials to the U. The versaries, the government imposes restrictions on U. In the case that funded by the Department of Energy, the Na- of the military, the government itself is the cus- tional Aeronautics and Space Administration, the tomer for materials technology and hardware.

Rather, they sponsor materials re- siles; they can also enhance the mission capability search ranging from basic science to technology of a host of less exotic systems such as tanks, demonstration programs, according to their vari- ships, submarines, and ground vehicles. Trans- ous mission objectives. Where appropriate, they fer of DoD-funded materials technology to the openly seek to transfer materials technology to commercial sector, however, is discouraged by the private sector.

Encourage potential end users to make long- ln the next 5 to 10 years, military demand for term capital investments in advanced ma- advanced materials is likely to grow at a faster terials. It is evident that government commercial market pull on these materials in the restrictions on advanced materials and associated United States. The climate for investment in long- technical data in the interests of national secu- term, high-risk technologies such as advanced rity can cause conflict with U.

Furthermore, these conflicts are likely to designed to make more patient investment cap- become more severe as commercial applications ital available. These would include providing tax grow and as the companies involved become incentives for long-term capital investment, re- more multinational. Three major reser- able to our adversaries from other sources; voirs of materials expertise are available to U.

OTA finds that industry generally participates to 4. Build a strong advanced materials technol- gain access to new ideas and trained graduate ogy infrastructure. The government could encourage ing rapidly among firms and across national the commercialization step by establishing col- borders.

Critical advances continue to come from Iaborative centers in which government and in- abroad, and the flow of materials technology into dustry would share the costs of downstream ma- the United States may already be as important terials fabrication technology development. Policy terials fabrication expertise, but lack the capital options for building up this infrastructure include: to explore its commercial potential.

Page Integrated Design and Manufacturing. The Family of Structural Materials. Composite Reinforcement Types. Comparison of the Specific Strength and Energy Costs Projected U.

Markets for Structural Manufacturing. Materials and Minerals Legislation. Materials and Minerals Legislation has been made in the development of new struc- Strategic War Materials Act— tural materials. These materials, which include 53 Stat. Their superior properties, such as the 60 Stat. In addition, these cilities for defense production, to make and guarantee loans to expand defense production, and to enter into materials can lead to entirely new military and long-term supply contracts for scarce materials.

A graphic ex- Public Law ample is the construction of the composite air-. Established the National Commission on Materials Policy to develop a national materials policy, including plane Voyager, which flew nonstop around the supply, use, recovery, and disposal of materials. Mining and Minerals Policy Act— Public Law In the next 25 years, new structural materials Encouraged the Secretary of the Interior to promote in- will provide a powerful leverage point for the volvement of private enterprise in economic develop- ment, mining disposal, and reclamation of materials.

Given this multiplier effect, it is likely Development Act— that the application of advanced structural ma- Public Law terials will have a dramatic impact on gross na- Directed the President to assess material demand, sup- plies, and needs for the economy and national securi- tional product, balance of trade, and employment ty; and to submit a program plan to implement the in the United States.

All of the industrialized findings of the assessment. Through the s, legislation continued to fo- cus on ensuring access to reliable supplies of stra- tegic materials in time of national emergency. The In , these concerns were extended to en- s saw legislative interest broaden to include compass advanced materials with the National the economic and environmental implications of Critical Materials Act Public Law , Title II.

In this Act, Congress established the National Crit-. The intent was to establish a policy focus States? What are the implications of the large mili- will be critical for both U. What policy options does the Federal Gov- influenced by Federal policies. Congressional in- ernment have to accelerate the commerciali- terest in advanced materials technologies has zation of advanced materials technologies? What are the major potential opportunities These questions comprise the framework of this for advanced structural materials, and what assessment.

Two or more of these materials can be covered. Figure compares the maximum use temper- Composites generally consist of fibrous or par- atures of the three primary categories of struc- ticulate reinforcements held together by a com- tural materials.

Organic materials such as poly- mon matrix, as illustrated in figure However, fiber-reinforced composites ever, can retain their strength above F are also more expensive and difficult to fabricate. In applications such as heat Composites are classified according to their ma- engines and heat exchangers, in which efficiency trix phase.

Thus, there are ceramic matrix com- increases with operating temperature, ceramics posites CMCs , polymer matrix composites PMCs , offer potential energy savings and cost savings and metal matrix composites MMCs. This assessment focuses on ad- ventional metals. New metal alloys and unrein- the metal with. Figure Includes ceramics, polymers, and metals. Materials in the shaded regions are dis- cussed in this assessment. Such properties make it possible to build composite structures having the same strength and stiffness as metal structures but with up to 50 percent less weight, a major advan- tage in aircraft and space applications.

This application claims benefit pursua U. Espe invention relates to an activated carbon havi stocking property, and high adsorption quant such as hydrocarbon gas having low molecular if BET specific surface area is low.

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4100800 Advanced Materials by Design

Элли заметила обращенные к себе взгляды. "Ах, неужели я выдаю. - С вежливой улыбкой она огляделась. - Ну а теперь, Элли, грядет величайшее испытание. Никто и ни при каких обстоятельствах не должен заметить, что тебя это не удивляет".

Как обычно, во время еженедельных обходов Роберт, Элли и кроха Николь остановились у Наи Ватанабэ и ее близнецов в Авалоне, где еще оставались в живых семьдесят семь больных RV-41.

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А потому, когда продолжительность жизни резко возросла, проще было ограничить возобновление вида, чем установить планируемую терминацию. Но прошло немного времени, и стареющее общество начало загнивать.

Как может объяснить Арчи и любой хороший оптимизатор, коэффициент "окостенения" в наших колониях сделался настолько большим, что практически _все_ новые идеи отвергались. Подобные гериатрические колонии гибли в основном потому, что не могли приспособиться к изменяющимся условиям жизни во Вселенной. - Итак, значит с этого начинается оптимизация. - Да. Если личность считает процветание всей колонии самой важной частью во всей управляющей функции, то сразу становится понятным, что планируемая терминация представляет собой критический элемент всей проблемы оптимизации.

Роберт, - возразила Элли, - но ты же знаешь: почти все, что он говорит, - _чистая ложь_. У октопауков не существует корпуса смертников, они не оказывали никакого сопротивления.

Я должен что-то сделать, чтобы помочь Эпонине. Хотя бы для очистки совести. - Но что ты можешь сделать, Макс. - спросила Николь, чуть помедлив. - С внешним миром нас теперь связывает только этот поганый вагон, - ответил Макс. - В следующий раз, когда он доставит нам пищу и воду - сегодня или завтра, - я собираюсь забраться внутрь и остаться. И когда вагончик отправится отсюда, я поеду - куда бы он меня ни завез.

А там попытаюсь найти первого октопаука и дам ему поймать .

WO2007037508A1 - Activated carbon and process of making the same - Google Patents

Вся работа немедленно остановилась, а октопаук заторопился к работнику, чтобы отобрать у него мяч. Коротким движением двух щупалец октопаук отшвырнул мяч детям, и работа возобновилась. Все, кроме Макса и Николь, уже спали, когда инопланетяне закончили сооружать свою лестницу, собрали оставшиеся материалы и уехали в вагоне.

Макс подошел к цилиндру и просунул в него голову.

По-моему, наши проводники не одобряют твоей выходки, - сказала - Наверное, - согласился Ричард. - Но удовольствие стоило беспокойства.

Просто сказочный прогресс. Мы не надеялись, что ты сумеешь так быстро восстановить силы. - Очень хочется пить, - сказала она, улыбаясь. - Это старое тело теряет столько воды. Орел поднес ей стакан воды со стола. Допив, Николь повернулась к своему инопланетному Другу. - Ну как, ты готов выполнить свою часть сделки. - спросила .

options for accelerating the commercial utilization of the materials. in recent years Remarkable advances in structural materials products. Concern about the.

Например, ярко-красный купол на поверхности океана был окружен восемью красными длинными и тонкими спицами, расположенными через равные промежутки. Все строения города укладывались внутрь круга, очерченного восемью цветными куполами. Николь сразу понравилось странное бурое сооружение, плававшее на воде. Оно оказалось почти столь же огромным, как центральные купола. Сверху прямоугольник напоминал многослойный каркас из плотно утрамбованной ячеи, набитой птичьим пухом.

- Что. - спросила Николь, указывая. - Здешние октопауки очень далеко продвинулись в микробиологии. В этом сооружении, которое уходит еще на десять метров под воду, размещены тысячи различных поселений, где живут крохотные существа размером в микрон.

Перед тобой склад, где хранятся крошечные создания.

Проговорила Николь. Машина повернула к белому забору, окружающему травянистый лужок, на котором паслось четверо лошадей. Между ними расхаживали двое подростков.

- Дети реальны, - проговорил Орел. - Лошади - муляж. На вершине невысокого холма располагался большой двухэтажный белый дом с покатой черной крышей. Орел повернул на круговую дорожку и остановил машину. Мгновение спустя отворилась передняя дверь дома. В ней появилась высокая темнокожая красавица с седеющими волосами.

Мы не знаем. И надеемся, что ты поделишься с нами своими ощущениями. Долгое время они летели молча. Узел быстро увеличивался в размерах.

Захария и Коллин - дети Кати, Симона - старшая у Тимоти. Николь не слышала, как он вошел в комнату.

В этот вечер Пьер был очень задумчив. Он рассказывал Николь и Женевьеве о том, как ухаживал за матерью Николь.

Нет, - ответила Алиенора. - Первоначально стену пробурили. Конечно, скважину очень расширили, устроили мост через ров, чтобы войска могли двигаться .

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