Diamonds aren't just a girl's best friend -- they're also crucial components for hard-wearing industrial components, such as the drill bits used to access oil and gas deposits underground. But a cost-efficient method to find other suitable materials to do the job is on the way. Diamond is one of the only materials hard and tough enough for the job of constant grinding without significant wear, but as any imminent proposee knows, diamonds are pricey. High costs drive the search for new hard and superhard materials. However, the experimental trial-and-error search is itself expensive. A simple and reliable way to predict new material properties is needed to facilitate modern technology development.
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- Diamond Grinding Tool
- US20070051355A1 - Brazed diamond tools and methods for making the same - Google Patents
- China diamond tools korea
- Scientists Discover Material Harder Than Diamond
- Hard as a diamond? Scientists predict new forms of superhard carbon
- What the World Needs Now Is Superhard Carbon
- Finding alternatives to diamonds for drilling
Diamond Grinding Tool
Multi-layered superabrasive tools and methods for the making thereof are disclosed and described. In one aspect, superabrasive particles are chemically bonded to a matrix support material according to a predetermined pattern by a braze alloy. The brazing alloy may be provided as a powder, thin sheet, or sheet of amorphous alloy. A template having a plurality of apertures arranged in a predetermined pattern may be used to place the superabrasive particles on a given substrate or matrix support material.
This application is also a continuation-in-part of U. The present invention relates generally to tools having diamond particles chemically bonded to a matrix support material, or a substrate, and arranged in a predetermined pattern. Accordingly, the present invention involves the fields of chemistry, metallurgy, and materials science.
Abrasive tools have long been used in numerous applications, including cutting, drilling, sawing, grinding, lapping and polishing of materials.
Because diamond is the hardest abrasive material currently known, it is widely used as a superabrasive on saws, drills, and other devices, which utilize the abrasive to cut, form, or polish other hard materials. Diamond tools are particularly indispensable for applications where other tools lack the hardness and durability to be commercially practical.
For example, in the stone industry, where rocks are cut, drilled, and sawed, diamond tools are about the only tools that are sufficiently hard and durable to make the cutting, etc.
If diamond tools were not used, many such industries would be economically infeasible. Likewise, in the precision grinding industry, diamond tools, due to their superior wear resistance, are uniquely capable of developing the tight tolerances required, while simultaneously withstanding wear sufficiently to be practical. A typical superabrasive tool, such as a diamond saw blade, is manufactured by mixing diamond particles e. The mixture is then compressed in a mold to form the right shape e.
Finally, the consolidated body is attached e. Despite their prevailing use, diamond tools generally suffer from several significant limitations, which place unnecessary limits on their useful life.
For example, the abrasive diamond or cubic boron nitride CBN particles are not distributed uniformly in the matrix that holds them in place. As a result, the abrasive particles are not positioned to maximize efficiency for cutting, drilling, grinding, polishing, etc.
The distance between diamond or CBN abrasive particles determines the work load each particle will perform. Improper spacing of the diamond or CBN abrasive particles typically leads to premature failure of the abrasive surface or structure.
In addition, excess particles add to the expense of production due the high cost of diamond and cubic boron nitride. Moreover, these non-performing diamond or CBN particles can block the passage of debris, thereby reducing the cutting efficiency. Thus, having abrasive particles disposed too close to one another adds to the cost, while decreasing the useful life of the tool. On the other hand, if abrasive particles are spaced too far apart, the workload e.
The sparsely distributed diamond or CBN abrasive particles may be crushed, or even dislodged from the matrix into which they are disposed. The damaged or missing abrasive particles are unable to fully assist in the workload. Thus, the workload is transferred to the surviving abrasive particles. The failure of each abrasive particle causes a chain reaction which soon renders the tool ineffective to cut, drill, grind, etc.
Different applications may require different size of diamond or cubic boron nitride abrasive particles. For example, drilling and sawing applications may require a large sized 20 to 60 U. Often the tool may include a matrix support material, such as a metal powder, which holds or supports the diamond particles.
Moreover, even when the mixing is thorough, diamond particles can still-segregate from metal powder in the subsequent treatments such as pouring the mixture into a mold, or when the mixture is subjected to vibration. The distribution problem is particularly troublesome for making diamond tools when diamond is mixed in the metal support matrix. There is yet another limitation associated with the many methods of positioning diamond grits in a tool.
For example, saw segments tend to wear faster on the edge or front than the middle. Therefore, higher concentrations and smaller diamond grit are preferred in these locations to prevent uneven wear and thus premature failure of the saw segment.
Thus, despite the known advantages of having varied diamond grit sizes and concentration levels, such configurations are seldom used because of the lack of a practical method of making thereof.
In fact, in most cases, diamond grits are merely mechanically embedded in the matrix support material. As a result, diamond grits are often knocked off or pulled out prematurely.
Moreover, the grit may receive inadequate mechanical support from the loosely bonded matrix under work conditions. Hence, the diamond particles may be shattered by the impact of the tool against the workpiece to which the abrasive is applied. It has been estimated that, in a typical diamond tool, less than about one tenth of the grit is actually consumed in the intended application i. The remainder is wasted by either being leftover when the tool's useful life has expired, or by being pulled-out or broken during use due to poor attachment and inadequate support.
Most of these diamond losses could be avoided if the diamond particles can be properly positioned in and firmly attached to the surrounding matrix. In order to maximize the mechanical hold on the diamond grits, they are generally buried deep in the substrate matrix. As a result, the protrusion of the diamond particles above the tool surface is generally less than desirable.
Low grit protrusion limits the cutting height for breaking the material to be cut. As a result, friction increases and limits the cutting speed and life of the cutting tool. In order to anchor diamond grit firmly in the support matrix, it is highly desirable for the matrix to form carbide around the surface of the diamond.
The chemical bond so formed is much stronger than the traditional mechanical attachment. The carbide may be formed by reacting diamond with suitable carbide formers such as a transition metal.
Typical carbide forming transition metals are: titanium Ti , vanadium V , chromium Cr , zirconium Zr , molybdenum Mo , and tungsten W.
The formation of carbide requires that the carbide former be deposited around the diamond and that the two subsequently be caused to react to form carbide. Moreover, the non-reacted carbide former must also be consolidated by sintering or other means. All these steps require treatment at high temperatures. The degradation is due to either the reaction with the matrix material or the development of micro-cracks around metal inclusions inside the crystal. These inclusions are often trapped catalysts used in the formation of synthetic diamond.
Hence, refractory carbide formers are not suitable as the main constituent of the matrix support material. There are, however, some carbide formers that may have a lower melting temperature, such as manganese Mn , iron Fe , silicon Si , and aluminum Al.
However, these carbide formers may have other undesirable properties that prohibit them from being used as the primary constituent of the matrix support material. For example, both manganese and iron are used as catalysts for synthesizing diamond at high pressure above 50 Kb. Hence, they can catalyze diamond back to graphite during the sintering of the matrix powder at a lower pressure. The back conversion is the main cause of diamond degradation at high temperature. However, the melting point of aluminum can be approached when diamond grit is cutting aggressively.
Hence, aluminum may become too soft to support the diamond grit during the cutting operation. Moreover, aluminum tends to form the carbide Al 4 C 3 at the interface with diamond. This carbide is easily hydrolyzed so it may be disintegrated when exposed to coolant. Hence, aluminum typically is not a suitable carbide former to bond diamond in a matrix. To avoid the high temperature of sintering, carbide formers, such as tungsten, are often diluted as minor constituents in the matrix that is made of primarily either Co or bronze.
During the sintering process, there is a minimal amount, if any, of liquid phase formed. The diffusion of carbide former through a solid medium toward diamond is very slow. As a result, the formation of carbide on the surface of diamond is negligible.
Therefore, by adding a carbide former as a minor matrix constituent, the improvement of diamond attachment is marginal at best. In order to ensure the formation of carbide on the surface of diamond, the carbide former may be coated onto the diamond before mixing with the matrix powder. In this way, the carbide former, although it may be a minor ingredient in the matrix, can be concentrated around diamond to form the desired bonding. The coating of diamond may be applied chemically or physically.
In the former case, the coated metal is formed by a chemical reaction, generally at a relatively high temperature. For example, by mixing diamond with carbide formers such as titanium or chromium, and heating the mixture under a vacuum or in a protective atmosphere, a thin layer of the carbide former may be deposited onto the diamond.
Increasing temperature may increase the thickness of the coating. The addition of a suitable gas e. HCl vapor that assists the transport of the metal may also accelerate the deposition rate. Alternatively, the coating may be performed in a molten salt. In addition to sintering, infiltration is also a common technique for making diamond tools; in particular for drill bits and other specialty diamond tools that contain large i. Most commonly used infiltrants for these tools are copper based alloys.
These infiltrants must flow and penetrate the small pores in the matrix powder. In order to avoid the diamond degradation at high temperature, the melting point of the infiltrant must be low. Hence, the infiltrant often contains a low melting point constituent, such as zinc Zn. In addition to lowering the melting point of the infiltrant, the low melting point constituent also reduces the viscosity so the infiltrant can flow with ease.
However, as most carbide formers tend to increase the melting point of the infiltrant, they are excluded from most infiltrants. As a result, these infiltrants cannot improve the bonding of diamond. One specific process that has become dependent on the use of diamond tools is chemical mechanical polishing CMP. This process has become standard in the semi-conductor and computer industry for polishing wafers of ceramics, silicon, glass, quartz, etc.
In general terms, the work piece to be polished is held against a spinning polishing pad of polyurethane, or other suitable material. The top of the pad holds a slurry of acid and abrasive particles, usually by a mechanism such as fibers, or small pores, which provide a friction force sufficient to prevent the particles from being thrown off of the pad due to the centrifugal force exerted by the pad's spinning motion. Therefore, it is important to keep the top of the pad as flexible as possible, and to keep the fibers as erect as possible, or to assure that there are an abundance of open and pores available to receive new abrasive particles.
A problem with maintaining the top of the pad is caused by an accumulation of polishing debris coming from the work piece, abrasive slurry, and polishing disk. The device most widely used for pad dressing is a disk with a plurality of super hard crystalline particles, such as diamond particles or cBN particles attached thereto.
Dressing disks made by conventional methods share several problems with other superabrasive tools, made by conventional methods.
Superhard materials are highly prized, ironically enough, for their flexibility. Not in terms of bending, but rather in terms of what they can be used to build. Creating scratch-resistant coatings, for example, could have any number of uses. So finding more of these materials is a priority for scientists, which is why a team from the University of Buffalo used artificial intelligence to identify 43 previously unknown forms of carbon that are thought to be stable and superhard. The 43 carbon structures are still theoretical, meaning that scientists have predicted them, but haven't actually brought them forward into creation yet.
US20070051355A1 - Brazed diamond tools and methods for making the same - Google Patents
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China diamond tools korea
Journal of Superhard Materials. The paper reviews the latest advances in the development of abrasive tools and investigation of diamond abrasive machining processes. The review demonstrates the necessity of taking into account the interaction between abrasive and workpiece materials as well as the influence of elements of a workpiece material on wear of abrasive grains; also, it shows the importance of sorting diamond grains by shape, especially within a wide range of their strength. Special features of application of CVD diamonds and the methods for changing the diamond—bond interface zone in order to improve grain retention are discussed. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Diamond Tool Holder
Multi-layered superabrasive tools and methods for the making thereof are disclosed and described. In one aspect, superabrasive particles are chemically bonded to a matrix support material according to a predetermined pattern by a braze alloy. The brazing alloy may be provided as a powder, thin sheet, or sheet of amorphous alloy. A template having a plurality of apertures arranged in a predetermined pattern may be used to place the superabrasive particles on a given substrate or matrix support material. This application is also a continuation-in-part of U. The present invention relates generally to tools having diamond particles chemically bonded to a matrix support material, or a substrate, and arranged in a predetermined pattern. Accordingly, the present invention involves the fields of chemistry, metallurgy, and materials science. Abrasive tools have long been used in numerous applications, including cutting, drilling, sawing, grinding, lapping and polishing of materials.
Scientists Discover Material Harder Than Diamond
The cages colored in blue are structurally related to diamond, and the cages colored in yellow and green are Avery et al. They also hold potential for creating scratch-resistant coatings that could help keep expensive equipment safe from damage.
Problems which had to be solved by institute in 70th , concerned to two basic directions. First, as soon as it became clear, that developed and mastered at ISMn the technology of synthesis of diamonds allows under the scientific contents, by technical decisions and economy to organize industrial production of synthetic diamonds, the scale designing and construction of specialized factories on manufacture of synthetic diamonds and the diamond tool was developed. First for accommodation of specialized factories have been chosen Poltava in Ukraine and Yerevan in Armenia. Secondly, successful overcoming of resistance to introduction of new tool diamond production in various branches the manufactures which begun and was headed by scientific and statesmen in 60th years, has given positive result. There were samples to the new, very necessary for country technical equipment in the nuclear industry, both in microelectronics, and in an outer space exploration. Activity of the scientific and vigorous organizer of V. Bakul and created ISM have been demanded by process of economy of the USSR and consequently used strong support of the government in 60th. In Institute of Superhard Materials continuously operating exhibition has been created which demonstated wide opportunities of the tool from synthetic diamonds in various areas. At an exhibition which for 50 years have been visited by up to thousand person, also the seminars for experts-technologists of various branches have been hold.
Hard as a diamond? Scientists predict new forms of superhard carbon
There is a revolution taking place in the South African cutting tool industry, and it is coming straight out of Pietermaritzburg. Somta Tools, a cutting tool manufacturer, has added a new product to its line — tools made from the faster and more efficient tungsten carbide material. The new product will not only put pressure on competitors that stick to high-speed steel drill production, but it will open Somta to more business opportunities in the aviation and motor vehicle industries. Though very stable and robust, high-speed steel operates at slower cutting speeds, but carbide can run at very high speeds thereby drastically shortening machining times. Since British steelmaker Samuel Osborn established Somta as its South African division in , it has been producing high-speed steel, and Van Rensburg points out that the older product will not be ousted by carbide any time soon. Somta still has a number of clients that rely on high-speed steel tooling. Though Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele discovered tungsten carbide in , it was only in the 20th century that it began to be used in cutting tool applications.
What the World Needs Now Is Superhard Carbon
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Finding alternatives to diamonds for drilling
A diamond tool is a cutting tool with diamond grains fixed on the functional parts of the tool via a bonding material or another method. As diamond is a superhard material , diamond tools have many advantages as compared with tools made with common abrasives such as corundum and silicon carbide. In Natural History , Pliny wrote "When an adamas is successfully broken it disintegrates into splinters so small as to be scarcely visible.
Diamond—Diamond here refers to graphite formed artificial diamond under high temperature and high pressure, which is composed of pure carbon, such as cutting tools in industry. Its hardness is second only to diamond. It not only has many excellent characteristics of diamond, but also has higher thermal stability and chemical inertness to iron group metals and its alloys. Its electroplated polishing and finishing tools are mainly used in grinding, grinding, polishing, and ultra-finishing to achieve high-precision surface processing effects.
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Minerals Yearbook. Technologic trends in the mineral industries metals and nonmetals. Abrasive materials by Robert G Clarke.